A Short Guide to Biblical Interpretation Andrew S. Kulikovsky B.App.Sc (Hons)
Subscribe to feed

About This Blog...

Why is interpretation necessary?

Often you hear people say: “Just read the Bible and do what it says!” The problem with this attitude is that different people, even though they read the same Bible, come to very different conclusions about what it actually says!

Many people also tend to think of the Bible as “God’s little instruction book for life.” While this statement has a kernel of truth – the Bible certainly does contain much teaching on how to live – it is far more than just an instruction manual. It is the written record of God revealing in history who He is, what He is like, who we are, what we are like, and what He expects of us. This is the overall message of the Bible in a nutshell, and it should always be kept in our minds as we read the Bible.

The Bible was originally written to people who lived in a different place, in a very different culture, at a different time and period of history, and who spoke different languages. It also contains several different types of literature (called genres).

Because the Bible is God’s word in history revealed to people in history, it means that each passage has an historical context – an particular author, audience, purpose and occasion. On the other hand, since the Bible is also the word of God, its contents are also eternally relevant.

Therefore, the goal of interpretation is not to come up with the most unique interpretation (unique interpretations are usually wrong), but to discover the original intended meaning of a passage – the way the original audience understood it. The task of discovering the original intended meaning is called exegesis.

The key to doing good exegesis is reading the text very carefully, paying close attention to the details it describes, and asking the text the right questions. This is critical to finding the correct interpretation. Bad interpretation results directly from bad exegesis.

Basic Tools

One of the easiest and most effective ways of identifying ambiguities and differences of opinion in interpretation is to read different translations – preferably as many as possible. There are three basic types of translations: literal (word-for-word translation), dynamic (thought-for-thought), and paraphrase (rephrasing of an existing translation). Here is a list (not exhaustive) of useful translations:

One of the easiest and most effective ways of identifying ambiguities and differences of opinion in interpretation is to read different translations – preferably as many as possible. Here is a brief annotated list (not exhaustive) of useful translations:

  • King James Version (KJV). First published in 1611 and revised in 1769, it was the best selling Bible up until 1987. However, it is based on very late original manuscripts and the language it uses is antiquated. In 1982, it was revised again, the Shakesperean English was removed and the new work was republished as the New King James Version (NKJV).
  • New American Standard Bible (NASB). Produced by the Lockman Foundation in 1971, it was a revision of the Amercan Standard Version (ASV) of 1901. The translators, all committed to the inspiration of Scripture, strove to produce a literal translation of the Bible reflecting the actual wording and grammatical structure of the original languages. However, it is not particularly easy to read. The NASB was revised in 1995.
  • Revised Standard Version (RSV). Published by William Collins Publishers in 1952, it is also a revision of the ASV. The RSV was revised and republished in 1990 as the New Revised Standard Version (NRSV). However, this revision tends to be far more liberal, particularly in the Old Testament.
  • New English Bible (NEB). A completely new transation from the original languages produced by the Church of Scotland and published in 1970. The goal was to produce a fresh tranlation in modern English, although the idiom is extremely British. The NEB was revised and republished in 1989 as the Revised English Bible (REB).
  • New International Version (NIV). Published in 1978, it is a completely new rendering of the original languages done by an international group of more than a hundred scholars from United States, Canada, Great Britain, Australia, and New Zealand. It is a thought-for-thought translation and makes full use of modern English idiom. Since 1987, it has outsold the King James Version. The NIV was revised in 1984.
  • Jerusalem Bible (JB). Published by the Dominican Biblical School of Jerusalem in 1966, it is the first complete Catholic Bible to be translated from the original languages, and is the English counterpart to the French translation entitled La Bible de Jerusalem. It also includes the Apocrypha and Deuterocanonical books, and many study helps. The JB was revised and republished in 1986 as the New Jerusalem Bible (NJB).
  • The New American Bible (NAB). Published in 1970, this was the first American Catholic Bible to be translated from the original languages. It tends to be more conservative and more faithful to the original text than the JB.
  • Good News Bible (GNB). Also known as Today’s English Version (TEV). It was published by the American Bible Society in 1966 and produced by Robert Bratcher, a research associate of the Translations Department of the American Bible Society. It uses modern simple English which, for the most part, accurately reflects the meaning of the originals.
  • Living Bible (LB). A paraphrase of the ASV in modern speech produced by Kenneth Taylor. The intention was that anyone, even a child, could understand the message of the original writers. It tends to be a little too interpretive.
  • New Living Translation (NLT). A complete revision of the Living Bible. A team of highly respected scholars checked each verse against the originals languages to ensure its accuracy. However, it has been criticised for its unevenness and inconsistent renderings.
  • The Message (TM). A colourful paraphrase which is highly interpretive – almost to the point of being a devotional commentary. In some passages the phrasing is brilliant, and in others, terrible.
  • Amplified Bible (Amp). This translation inserts synonymns in brackets for most of the key words in each verse. This is a faulty linguististic practice, since a word only ever means one thing in any given context. Not only do the presence of the synonymns make the text difficult to read, they also encourage the reader to choose whichever synonymn happens to take their fancy or support their preconceived idea.
  • New English Translation (NET). Published by the Biblical Studies Press, this is the most recent English translation (1998), and even then only the New Testament is currently available. It is in modern English, is faithful to the originals and reflects the best of evangelical scholarship. It also includes masses of lucid text and study notes.
Although all the above translations are useful you should choose one to be your first or working translation. I would suggest that the NIV, NLT, NRSV or NET be used for such a purpose. These translations are in modern English, are generally very accurate, and format the text in paragraphs and stanzas, showing the text’s logical divisions and making it easy to read and follow the author’s train of thought. I would also suggest that the KJV, Amplified Bible and The Message be only used as a last option, and certainly not chosen as a primary translation.

Bible Dictionaries are also a must. The New Bible Dictionary or Illustrated Bible Dictionary is probably the best value. The very best (but also the most expensive) is the six volume Anchor Bible Dictionary, which is almost an encyclopedia. The International Standard Bible Encyclopedia (ISBE) is also an outstanding work.

Commentary sets are also necessary in order to check your interpretation and gain help on difficult passages. Commentaries vary greatly in quality depending on the series it belongs to and the particular author. The most useful and accessible sets for the layman are the Expositor’s Bible Commentary (EBC), the NIV Application Commentary (NIVAC), the Bible Speaks Today (BST), and the Tyndale Commentary (TOTC and TNTC). The more advanced interpreter may also wish to consult the New International Commentary (NICOT and NICNT), New International Greek Testament Commentary and International Critical Commentary. For help on evaluating and selecting commentaries see Fee & Stuart, pp. 246-254.

The Interpretive Process

Presuppositions & Pre-understandings

No-one is ever completely unbiased. Everyone approaches the Bible with presuppositions and pre-understandings or preconceived ideas about what the text means. However, this is not necessarily a problem, provided you are conscious of them and aware of how they may influence the way you read and interpret the text. Indeed, many interpreters come unstuck at this point because their presuppositions and pre-understandings often rule out a priori various interpretive options.

The Interpretive Cycle

 

 

The process of reading and interpreting the Bible should be cyclic. A reader approaches a passage of scripture with presuppositions (e.g. the Bible is the inerrant word of God) and usually has a pre-understanding about what the particular passage can or cannot mean. These presuppositions and pre-understandings, along with the context, influence the reader’s understanding of the passage, and help them derive their interpretation. This interpretation then effects the reader’s presuppositions, and becomes part of their pre-understandings the next time they read this passage. If our exegetical information, reasoning and judgements are thought through again and reassessed each time we go through the cycle then the accuracy and correctness of our interpretation will improve.

Phases of Interpretation

1. Identification

Different literary genres (kinds of literature) are interpreted in different ways, so the first question to ask is: “To which category of literature does the text you are interpreting belong? Below are brief descriptions of the different genres found in the Bible:

Historical Narratives. These describe actual historical events from God’s perspective. They tell us what God is like (His character and nature), what God likes/dislikes, how He deals with people who obey and honour Him, and how he deals with those who disobey and hate Him. Narratives give us principles and lessons, not commands, patterns or laws. Historical Narratives are found in Genesis, Exodus, Deuteronomy, Joshua, Judges, Ruth, 1-2 Samuel, 1-2 Kings, 1-2 Chronicles, Ezra, Nehemiah and Esther. In the New Testament, they can be found in parts of the Gospels, and the book of Acts.

Poetry and Songs. These are expressions of emotion to God. They allow us to express to God our feelings of happiness, joy, trust, hope, security, as well as feelings of discouragement, guilt, suffering, fear, anger, despair and repentance. They also assist us in expressing our love and appreciation for God or our need for forgiveness. Poetry and Songs allow us to relate to God on our own level. They show us how to communicate with God and how to honour and worship Him. In the Old Testament, these writings are found primarily in the Psalms and Song of Songs.

Legal Writings. These writings indicate God’s high moral standard, His idea of justice, principles of common sense government, principles of common sense health and safety, and His pattern and order for acceptable worship. These laws are NOT directly applicable to Christians today i.e. they are not meant to be legalistic instructions and commands to Christians. Such legal writings can be found in Exodus, Leviticus, Numbers and Deuteronomy.

Wisdom/Wise Sayings. These writings indicate God’s view of wisdom as opposed to man’s view of wisdom. They contain wise sayings, and practical advice on how to live life and avoid trouble and hardship. Wisdom literature can be found primarily in Proverbs, Ecclesiastes and Job.

Prophecy. Prophecy is God’s message to a particular person, a particular group of people and sometimes to all humanity. It is not necessarily foretelling the future – in fact the vast majority of prophecy in the Bible speaks of the present. Prophecy is found primarily in the Old Testament, from Isaiah to Malachi.

Teachings of Jesus. These are direct statements of truth from Jesus concerning the nature and character of God the kingdom of God/Heaven, what God expects of us, principles of righteous living, and the ways in which Jesus fulfils the OT prophecies. They are not exhaustive ‘DOs and DON’Ts,’ but rather, serve as examples and paradigms (patterns) from which we can derive underlying principles to apply in other situations. These teachings are found in parts of the Gospels i.e. Matthew – John.

Parables. Parables are stories with a punch-line. Parables are not so much illustrative, but rather, provocative. They are designed to draw people in and hit them with something unexpected, in the same way a joke does. Most parables have only one message or central idea, and even if multiple messages are present, one of them will be the chief idea. Note also that they are not perfect analogies! Parables are also found in parts of the Gospels.

Letters. These are generally occasional documents i.e. they were written with a clear purpose to a well identified audience. However, some letters (called epistles) were written to a larger people group. The letter/epistle writer presents arguments to correct, rebuke, defend, instruct, praise and encourage their readers. Letters/epistles form the vast majority of the New Testament from Romans to Jude.

Apocalypse. This includes the book of Revelation, and also large parts of Ezekiel and Daniel. Revelation is a vision of warning and encouragement to the early church as it was going through immense persecution.

2. Observation

In the same way that the three most important factors in real estate are location, location and location, the three most important factors in exegesis are context, context and context. Understanding the context is the key to understanding what you are reading. Gordon Fee and Doug Stuart also point out “[t]he only proper control for hermeneutics is to be found in the original intent of the biblical text.”

There are two aspects of the context of a passage: the historical context and the literary context.

Historical Context. The Bible was written over a period of time dating from approximately 2000 BC (Job) to 95 AD (Revelation). It was set in a different country/continent and a vastly different culture and society from our own, therefore we must be careful not to make 20th century “western world” assumptions about the situation. Consult Bible dictionaries, encyclopedias and handbooks in order to find out about the manners and customs of the various nations at that time in history. Use your imagination and try to put yourself in the shoes of the people involved. Make observations about who? what? when? where? and how?

Literary Context. This is the position of the text you are reading in relation to other texts. What verses come before? What verses come after? What situation, event, statement or argument led up to this passage? What situation, event, statement or argument followed or resulted from this passage? What book is the text in? Whereabouts in the book? What testament is it in? Why is the text in this position? Why is it in the Bible at all? What difference would it make if it was left out?

Following are some suggestions on making observations depending on the genre of the passage you are interpreting:

Historical Narratives. Choose a complete narrative and read it in a single sitting. Make (mental) notes as you are reading, and ask: What is happening? To who? When? Where? WHY? (The most important question!) What can I learn about God?
What can I learn about the other characters involved?

Poetry and Songs. Read a complete Psalm or Song in one sitting, taking (mental) notes as you are reading. What is being said about God? What is being said about humanity? Is the writer pleading for something? Are they pouring their heart out? If so, about what? Are they praising God? Are they angry with God? What mood does the writer seem to be in? Joyful? Happy? Angry? Fearful? Anxious? Distraught? Discouraged? Does the writer’s mood change?

Legal Writings. Read a collection of related rules/regulations in one sitting. What rules/regulations are being put in place? Why? What situations/circumstances do they cover? Are they for moral reasons or are they concerned with administration/ government and personal hygiene? Can you see any pattern being established? Is a feast, offering or ceremony being described? If so, what seems to be its purpose or significance? Never stop asking WHY?

Wisdom. Read as much of Proverbs/Job/Ecclesiastes as you can in one go, taking (mental) notes as you read. Consider what you think the central message of the text is.
What advice is given? What warnings are given? What comparisons are made? Compare the proverb you are reading with other similar or related proverbs (similar or related proverbs could be anywhere in the book of Proverbs). If there are similar/related proverbs, how do the proverbs differ? Do they relate to slightly different situations? Do they address different aspects of a problem or situation? If two proverbs say the opposite thing (and there are several) why would this be? Do you think the statement made or the advice given is good? Why or why not? You must also remember that proverbs are not always globally applicable to every person and every situation. They are guidelines and “rules of thumb,” not absolute rules, statements of fact or direct promises.

Prophecy. Read a single prophecy (called an “oracle”) in one sitting. Try and establish the historical setting. What circumstances in history provoked this prophetic word from God? What does it say about God? Is the prophecy positive or negative? Is it a warning? About what? Is it a condemnation? For what? Is it an encouragement or a message of hope? About what? Is it a promise? To do what? Prophecy is some of the hardest literature to read. Knowing the historical context is essential to really to appreciate what is being said. It may be necessary to consult a commentary or Bible handbook if you are struggling.

Teachings of Jesus. Read a complete section of teaching (called a “pericope”) in a single sitting, taking (mental) notes about what is being taught. What message is He communicating? What subject is He talking about? What is He actually saying about it? Is it a command? Is it a warning? Is it an exhortation/encouragement? Is it a promise? Does it give us a better understanding of who God is? Does it give us a better understanding of what we are like?

Parables. Read a single parable and the surrounding dialogue in one sitting. Try to determine the central thought of the parable. What message is it communicating? Keep in mind the CONTEXT! This is a big clue to identifying the central thought. What events prompted Jesus to tell this parable? How did the hearers react to it? Did they understand it? Focus on the central thought – don’t focus on all the minute details – they are not meant to be important. Read ahead – some parables are interpreted for you by Christ later on in the gospel.

Letters. Read them like any other letter. Start at the beginning – stop at the end. If possible, read a letter right through in one sitting. Identify the major issues/arguments of the letter. Focus on one of the major issues/arguments. What is the point of each paragraph? What does each paragraph contribute to the current issue/argument? Why did the writer include a particular paragraph? What difference would it make if it were not included? Don’t pay too much attention to the chapter and verse divisions or the chapter headings – they’re NOT inspired! Words/phrases such as “Now about”, “Concerning” and “Finally” often indicate a change of argument/subject.

Apocalypse. Read the books of Daniel and Ezekiel first. Revelation uses lots of imagery from these books. Identify as much as possible, the use of imagery (by comparing Revelation with Daniel and Ezekiel). What is the imagery used to communicate in Revelation? What kind of message is being communicated? Hope? Encouragement? Warning? What does the text say about God and about Jesus Christ? What does it say about Satan? What does it say about the Church (New Jerusalem)? You will definitely want to consult some good commentaries in these matters. Revelation is the most difficult book in the Bible to read and understand.

3. Prayer, Meditation & Wresting

Pray, meditation and wresting are things the reader should do throughout the entire interpretive cycle, not just before you begin or when you are about to deliver your talk/sermon/speech.

Meditation does not mean emptying your head of everything – quite the opposite in fact. It means filling your mind with all the information required to make decisions about what the text says, how significant it is and how it should be applied today. When looking at a difficult passage, you may need to really pray about, and wrestle with, the various alternatives.

4. Determining Meaning

What do the particular key words or phrases mean? Pay attention to those elements that are repeated in the current passage or used elsewhere by the same author.

What is the significance of a particular key word, phrase or sentence? Does the element carry any special significance given the historical and social context? What does it contribute to the overall meaning of the text? How would the meaning of the text be effected if this particular element was left out?

Determine the relationships between the key words and phrases. Especially look for the following connecting words:

Contrast but, however, even though, much more, nevertheless, yet, although, then, otherwise
Condition if, whoever, whatever
Comparison too, also, as, just as, so also, likewise, like, in the same way
Correlatives as...so also, for...as, so...as
Reason because, for this reason, for this purpose, for, since
Result so then, therefore, as a result, thus, then
Purpose that, so that, in order that
Temporal/Time now, immediately, just then, until, when, before, after, while, during, since
Geographical where, from

Is there a progression in the story, account or argument? Is there a climax?

What is implied by the use of particular terms, phrases, or sentences? Any implications must be clear and reasonable – be careful not to exaggerate or over extend what the text says in order to support a preconceived idea (see section on Presuppositions and Pre-understandings).

Note also Gordon Fee’s and Doug Stuart’s warning: “A text cannot mean what it never meant.”

Ultimately, the test of a good interpretation is whether it makes good sense of the text and its context.

5. Application

Is there a command to obey? Is there an error to avoid? Does the passage point out sinful behaviour or attitudes that may be present in your own life? Is there an example to follow? Is there a promise to claim? Does the passage highlight an aspect of God’s nature and character which you had not seen before?

Further Reading:

M. J. Adler, How to Read a Book (Rev Ed) Simon & Schuster, 1972.

G. W. Bromiley (editor), International Standard Bible Encyclopedia, Eerdmans, Grand Rapids, Michigan, 1995.

D. A. Carson, D. J. Moo & L. Morris, An Introduction to the New Testament, Zondervan, Grand Rapids, Michigan, 1992.

G. D. Fee & D. Stuart, How to Read the Bible for All its Worth (2nd Ed), Zondervan, Grand Rapids, Michigan, 1993.

D. N. Freedman (editor), Anchor Bible Dictionary, Doubleday, 1992.

J. M. Freeman, Manners and Customs of the Bible, Whitaker House, Springdale, PA, 1996.

W. M. Klein, C. L. Blomberg & R. L. Hubbard, Introduction to Biblical Interpretation, Word, Dallas, 1993.

D. Kuske, Biblical Interpretation: The Only Right Way, Northwestern Publishing House, Milwaukee, Wisconsin, 1995.

W. S. LaSor, D. A. Hubbard & F. W. Bush, Old Testament Survey (2nd Ed), Eerdmans, Grand Rapids, Michigan, 1996.

The Lion Handbook to the Bible (2nd Ed), Tring, Hertfordshire, 1983.

G. R. Osborne, The Hermeneutical Spiral, InterVarsity Press, Downers Grove, Illinois, 1991.

I. H. Marshall, A. R. Millard, J. I. Packer & D. J. Wiseman (editors), New Bible Dictionary (3rd Ed), InterVarsity Press, Downers Grove, Downers Grove, Illinois, 1996.




Other Blogs
Introduction to New Testament Greek by J G Machen
Greek ,Goodwin, William W.
Spanish Theology Video ,La Perspectiva Existencial: Escogiendo el Bien
Spanish Theology Video ,La Perspectiva Existencial: Ser Bueno
Spanish Theology Video ,La Perspectiva Normativa: Los Atributos de las Escrituras
Spanish Theology Video ,La Perspectiva Situacional: Comprendiendo los Hechos
Spanish Theology Video Ética en la Escritura
Spanish Theology Video La Perspectiva Normativa: Partes y Aspectos de la Biblia
Spanish Theology Video,La Perspectiva Existencial: Tratando de Hacer el Bien
Spanish Theology Video,La Perspectiva Situacional: En Busca de la Meta
Systematic Theology Dr. Stanford E. Murrell
The Bruised Reed part 2 by Richard Sibbes
The Near East
"Can These Bones Live?” R C Sproul
1 Peter 1:1-2 by John Calvin
1 Peter 1:3-5 John Calvin
1Peter 1:6-9 John Calvin
2011 Conference for Pastors
2011 Pastors Conference
41 Videos Studying the Gsopel of Matthew DR Bob Utley
A Basket of Fragments By Robert Murray M'cheyne
A Call To Prayer Samuel Zwemer
A Christian Perspective on Islam Chawkat Moucarry
A Compendium of Scriptural Knowledge DR Clarke
A Compendium of Scriptural Knowledge DR Clarke
A Culture of Sacrifice David Temples
A Duplicate In The Koran DR Richard Bell
A Friend to Africa’s Orphans Rosemary Jensen
A Future So Bright by R.C. Sproul Jr.
A Generation of Heroes Burk Parsons
A Lifting Up For The Downcast part 3 Rev William Bridge
A Lifting Up of The Downcast Rev William Bridges
A Lifting Up Of The Downcast part 2 Rev William Bridge
A Practical View of Regeneration Professor Alexander
A Purpose in the Pain: An Interview with Joni Eareckson Tada
A Revaluation of Islamic Traditions Joseph Schacht
A Sacrificial Ethic Jason Stellman
A Sermon by Samuel Rutherford
A Study In Revival DR Morgan
A Summary of Evidence for Literal 24-hr Creation Days in Genesis 1.
Abiding In Christ Dr A Torrey
ABRAHAM.DR. G. WEIL,
ACADEMICS & ASSOCIATIONS
Across the Great Divide Rod Mays
ADAMA MOHAMMEDAN LEGEND DR. G. WEIL
Advice to Pastors St. Ambrose of Milan
Always Praying Dr A Torrey
Amazing Love Pastor John Piper
An 11th Century Reformer Burk Parsons
An Exposition of Hebrews by A. W. Pink
An Interview with Mark Driscoll
Apocrypha and Pseudepigrapha of the Old Testament in English
Apostasy Larry McCall
Are You Saved By Faith In Christ?
Article 1 John Piper In Chinese
Atonement DR John Murray
Babylonian Talmud
Barren Fig Tree John Bunyan
Beacon of Holiness Alistair Begg
Before Scholasticism
Before the Carolingian Empire
Beginning The Christian Life DR Torrey
Beyond Reason?John Lennox
BIBLE STUDY RESOURCES
Biblical Hermeneutics
Biblical Interpretation By Craig S. Keener
Biblical Objectivity Nick Eicher
Biography of John Owen
Building with Conviction R.C. Sproul
Building with Conviction R.C. Sproul
Calvin And The Reformation
Careers Colleges and Seminaries
Carnal Or spiritual ? Rev Andrew Murray
Causes of the Corruption of the Traditional Text of the Holy Gospels
Charles Henry Mackintosh Sermons
Charnock, Stephen (1628-1680)
Chesterton, G.K. (1874-1936)
Childhood in the Moslem World (1915) Dr Samuel Zwemer
Christ and Criticism Sir Robert Anderson
Christ Is The Life Thomas Brooks
Christian Exiles Pastor John Piper
Christian Influences In Early Islam Richard Bell
Christianity & Our Times by B B Warfield
Christianity and Culture DR J Gresham Machen
Christological controversy after Chalcedon
Christ's Agony by Jonathan Edwards
Chritianity without Christ Dr Charles Hodge
Classic Sermons
Comfort by John Owen
Commentary on Revelation Bullinger, Ethelbert William (1837-1913)
COMO PREPARAR/FORMAR UN SERMON EXPOSITIVO
COMO PREPARAR/FORMAR UN SERMON TOPICO
Compendium of Theology part 3 by Dr Baier
Compendium of Theology part 4 DR Baier
Compendium of Theology part 5 DR Baier
Compendium of Theoloy part 1 DR Baier
Confessions of a Bibliophile Keith Mathison
Congregational Counseling Eric Bancroft
COUNSELING HELPS
Creeds and Confessions by Dr A A Hodge
CULTS
Cyril of Alexandria, St. (d. 444)
Daily Meditations by Richard Sibbes
Death and Dying as Gain St. Ambrose of Milan
Death Does Not Have the Last Word R C Sproul
Death, Disease & the Gospel Burk Parsons
Desiring God 2011 National Conference
Desiring God Seminar video 1 Pastor John Piper
Desiring God Seminar Video 2 Pastor John Piper
Desiring God Seminar video 3 Pastor John Piper
Desiring God Seminar Video 4 Pastor John Piper
Dimensions of Faith -- FREE online courses from Gordon Conwell Seminary
Directions for the holy spending of every day by Richard Baxter
Divine Healing Andrew Murray
Do We Believe the Whole Gospel ? by R.C. Sproul
Does the Church Know Her Commission? Denny Burk
Donne, John (1572-1631)
Don't Waste Your Cancer by Matt Chandler
Early Islam
Early Jewish theology
Early Scholasticism and its contemporaries
Eckhart, Johannes (c. 1260-1327)
Edwards and The New England Theology Dr Warfield
Egypt
El Credo Niceno
El Nos Dio Profetas - 1 Perspectivas Hermenéuticas Esenciales
El Nos Dio Profetas - 2 La Labor de un Profeta
El Nos Dio Profetas - 3 El Pueblo del Pacto
El Nos Dio Profetas - 7 El Popósito de las Predicciones
El Nos Dio Profetas - 8 Revelación Escatológia
El Nos Dio Profetas -4 Dinámicas de los Pactos
El Nos Dio Profetas -5 Análisis Literario de los Profetas
Engagaing the Doctrine of God Book Review Bruce L McCormack
Evangelism & Missions
Explaining Hermeneutics:Norman L. Geisler
Ezra, According to the Gospel: Ezra 7:101Philip Graham Ryken
Faith Born of Need Dr J G Machen
Faith in God Dr J G Machen
Fénelon, François de Salignac de la Mothe (1651-1715)
Fiction and Truth in the Old Testament Wisdom Literature
Flavel, John (1627-1691)
Flesh and Spirit by John Bradford
Footprints in the Sand Burk Parsons
Forsyth, Peter Taylor (1848-1921)
Forward by C H Spurgeon
Freedom From The Law John Calvin
G E N E S I S John Bunyan
Gardner, Edmund Garratt (1869-1935)
Gathering Clouds: A Tale of the Days of St. Chrysostom
Genesis
Gleanings In Exodus A W Pink
Gleanings In Genesis A W Pink
Gleanings In Joshua A W Pink
Godly Boasting Pastor John Piper
God's Peacemakers Rev Alexander Maclaren 1826- 1910
Googling Oureselves To Death Rev Jason Stellman
Grace Abounding John Bunyan
Grace Transforms Everything Sean Michael Lucas
Great books
Greece
Gregory of Nyssa
Guthrie, William (1620-1665)
Guyon, Madame Jeanne Marie Bouvier de la Mothe (1647-1717)
Habermann, Johann
Harnack, Adolf (1851-1930)
Hastings, James (1852-1922)Dictionary of Christ and the Gospels: Volume I,2
He Loves Me,He Really Loves me Tim Challies
HEIRS OF THE PROPHETS DR Samuel Zwemer
Help Heavenward Octavius Winslow
Help Heavenward part 2 Octavius Winslow
Help Heavenward part 3 Octavius Winslow
Helps To Devotion by Reobert Murray M'Cheyne
Herbermann, Charles George (1840-1916)
Herbert, George (1593-1633)
Hilary of Poitiers, St.
Hindrances To Prayer Dr A Torrey
Historia Calamitatum: Abelard, Peter (1079-1142)
History and Faith by Dr J G Machen
Holding The Line Dr Albert Mohler
Holiness and Humility Rev Andrew Murray
Holiness by Thomas Manton
Holy Scripture and Modern Nagations Professor James Orr
Homily 1 on Hebrews by St Chrsostom
Hooker, Richard (c. 1554-1600)
Hort, Fenton John Anthony. (1828-1892)
How Evolution Undermines The Savior by Tom Stewart
How God Guides DR A Torrey
How to Do Good So That God Gets the Glory Pastor John Piper
How Tod Study The Bible Dr R A Torrey
Howe, John (1630-1705)
Human Trafficking In God's Worl Justin Holcomb
Humility A A Hodge
Humilty by Jonathan Edwards
Hutton, J. E. History of Moravians
Iconoclasts and iconophiles
IDRIS, OR ENOCH.DR. G. WEIL
In Christ Bishop H C G Moule
In Praise of Folly Erasmus, Desiderius (c. 1466-1536)
Incarnate Truth DR Warfield
Individuality In Religion Rev G Campell Morgan
Inspiration of Scriptures Dr. B.H. Carroll
INTERPRETATION OF THE SCRIPTURES A W Pink
Irenaeus, St. (c.130-c.200)
Is Mankind Lost In Sin? Dr J G Machen
Is the Reformation Over? John Calvin, Roman Catholicism, and Contemporary Ecumenical Conversations 1
Islam In Africa J Du Plessis 1909
It Takes A Church To Raise A Child, Mark Bates
Jerome: The Principal Works of St. Jerome
Jesus and Paul Dr J G Machen
Jesus Christ The Son of God Theodore Beza
Jesus Through Middle Eastern Eyes Book Review
John Calvin and His Work DR Philip Schaff
JOHN, MARY, AND CHRIST DR. G. WEIL
JOSEPH DR. G. WEIL
JOSEPH DR. G. WEIL
JOSHUA: Captain of Our Salvation
Jowett, Benjamin (1817-1893)
Justification by Death?R.C. Sproul
Justification by Dr Abraham Kuyper
Justification By Faith A W Pink
Key Word Studies
Killing Anger Pastor John Piper
Knowing Scripture R.C. Sproul
Kuyper, Abraham (1837-1920)
La Historia Primigenia -4 La Dirección Correcta (Génesis 6:9-11:9)
La oración de Nehemías
Lake, Kirsopp (1872-1946)
Latimer, Hugh (1485-1555)
Law, William (1686-1761)
Learning Greek
Lectures on the Acts of the Apostles.Dick, John (1764-1833)
Liberty by John Calvin
Life Is Not Trivial John Piper
Listening Before Answering Pastor John Piper
Looking To Jesus DR R A Torrey
Love by John Bunyan
Love The Lord Thomas Brooks
Luther, Martin (1483-1546)
MacLaren, Alexander (1826-1910)
Manhood, Womanhood, and God
Medieval Jewish theology
Meeting Jesus at an Old testament feast DR Sittema
Mercy Ministry Elliot Grudem
Ministerial Pride by Richard Baxter
Ministering By The Life Giving Spirit David Hall
Mission: A Problem of Definition Keith Ferdinando
Mohammed without Camouflage W H T Gairdner
Mohammed without Camouflage W H T Gairdner
More Sermon Links
MOSES AND AARON DR. G. WEIL
Motive Power R C Sproul Jr
Moule, Handley C. G. (1841-1920)
Muhammad His Life and Doctrines Arthur N Wollaston
My Idea of God Dr J Gresham Machen
Mystical theology
Mysticism by Dr Charles Hodge
NEW TESTAMENT STUDIES
NOAH, HUD, AND SALIH DR. G. WEIL
Nothing Like the Church by Robert Rayburn
Obeying and Praying Dr A Torrey
Ockenga Lectures on Preaching, Gordon-Conwell Theological Seminary
Old Testament Criticism and New Testament Christianity Professor W H Griffith Thomas
OLD TESTAMENT STUDIES
On God
One Isaiah professor George Robinson
Our Ancient Foe Keith Mathison
Our Comforter in Life and Death Larry Edison
Our Liberating God Burk Parsons
Our Moslem Sisters, Zwemer, Samuel Marinus, 1867-1952
PASTORAL HELPS
Patristic theology
Personal Holiness by A W Pink
Philip Jenkins. The Lost History of Christianity: The Thousand-Year Golden Age of the Church in the
Philippians Introduction DR Bob utley
Pilgrim's Progress John Bunyan
Prayer and Revival Dr A Torrey
Prayer by Hudson Taylor
Prayer by Stephen Charnock
Prayer by Thomas Watson
Praying In The Spirit DR A Torrey
Praying To God Dr A Torrey
Praying With Thanks DR A Torrey
Preaching Christ DR R C Sproul
Prize Winning Author Blats New Atheists
Profitable Bible Study Dr R A Torrey
Prophecies of The Messiah by John Gill
Providence by A W Pink
Public Prayer John Newton
R.C. Sproul Jr.Jerusalem and Athens
Rationalism DR Charles Hodge
RAYMUND LULL DR Samuel Zwemer
Receiving the Baton Bob Kauflin
Reclaiming The Old Testament for Christian Preaching
Reformation Fisher, George Park (1827-1909)
Rejoice with Trembling Pastor John Piper
Reproaches Improved by Thomas Manton
Resisting the Devil Burk Parsons
ROBERTSON'S NT WORD STUDIES
Rome
Salt of the Earth by Phil Johnson
Salvation History, Chronology, and Crisis: A Problem with Inclusivist Theology of Religions, Part 2
SAMUEL, SAUL, AND DAVID DR. G. WEIL,
Sanctified Sex Before Marriage
Schism And the Local Church Michael G Brown
Scholasticism and its contemporaries
Semon Video:Suffering Glorifies God Pastor John Piper
Sermon Links
Sermon on Hebrews chapter 1 by Thomas Goodwin
Sermon Vide:The Life of George Whitefield by Pastor Piper
Sermon Video (Boasting In The Cross)Pastor J Piper
Sermon Video (The Free Wiil of The Wind) Pastor J Piper
Sermon Video :Abortion by Pastor John Piper
Sermon Video :Behold The Lamb of God Pastor Piper
Sermon Video :Love by Pastor John Piper
Sermon Video :No one ever spoke like this man Pastor John Piper
Sermon Video :Staying Married Pastor John Piper
Sermon Video :The Lord's Supper Pastor John Piper
Sermon Video :The Supremacy of Christ Pastor Piper
Sermon Video :The Value of The Bible Pastor Piper
Sermon Video :Was This Child Born Blind?Pastor J Piper
Sermon Video 1 When The Righteous Suffer J Piper
Sermon video 2 When The Righteous Suffer p2 J Piper
Sermon Video Resting and Wrestling Pastor John
Sermon Video: Judas Iscariot by Pastor John Piper
Sermon Video:All Things Were Created Through Him Pastor John Piper
Sermon Video:Being Single Pastor John Piper
Sermon Video:Don't Waste Your Life Pastor John Piper
Sermon Video:Feed The Flame of Gods Gift by Pastor John Piper
Sermon Video:For Judgement I came Into This World Pastor John Piper
Sermon Video:He Knew What Was In Man Pastor John Piper
Sermon Video:How God Word's Produces Are Work John Piper
Sermon Video:Jesus Christ In Romans Pastor John Piper
Sermon Video:Lionhearted Pastor John Piper
Sermon video:Marriage Pastor John Piper
Sermon Video:Marriage Pursuing Conformity to christ Pastor John Piper
Sermon Video:Pray Like This by Pastor John Piper
Sermon Video:Racial Diversity Pastor John Piper
Sermon Video:The Light of The World Pastor John Piper
Sermon Video:The Obedience of Faith Pastor John Piper
Sermon Video:The Recession Pastor J Piper
Sermon Video:The Truth Will Set You Free Pastor John Piper
Sermon Video:We Found The Messiah Pastor J Piper
Shared Intentions? Reflections on Inspiration and Interpretation in Light of Scripture's Dual Author
Sin and God's Gift Dr J Gresham Machen
SOLOMON AND THE QUEEN OF SABA DR. G. WEIL,
Spanish Theology Video ,La Perspectiva Circunstancial:Revelacion y Situación
Spanish Theology VideoLa Perspectiva Normativa: Dios y Su Palabra
St Anselm R C Sproul
St Cyprian Epistle 1
Strange Fire by A W Pink
Studies In Acts Group
Studies In Matthew Group
Studies in Popular Islam Dr Samuel Zwemer
Suffering And Consolation Rev C H Spurgeon
Sufferring Christians by A W Pink
Systematic Theology DR Cheung
Testament Hebrew Lexicon
That the Scriptures Might Be Fulfilled Piper
The Atonement by Dr J Gresham Machen
The Attributes of God by A W Pink
The Bands of Brotherhood Dr R C Sproul
The Bible and Modern Criticism by Professor F Bettex
The Bible Is The Word Of God A W Pink
The Book of Daniel Professor Joseph Wilson
The Bruised Reed by Richard Sibbes
The Cambridge 7
The Center of Biblical Theology in Acts: Deliverance and Damnation Display the Divine
The Children's crusade DR R C Sproul Jr
The Christian Faith DR Geerhardos Vos
The Christian in Complete Armour;William Gurnall, M.A.,
The Consecrated Life:The Life and Times of Francis Ridley Havergal by J J Burns
The Conversion of Dr Martin Luther
The Covenant Way Susan Hunt
The Cross by J C Ryle
The Cross John Newton 1725-1807
The Cross: A Call To The Fundamentals Of Religion J C Ryle
The Cup of Wrath Andrew Bonar
The Dangers of Mixing Law and Gospel Jason Stellman
The Dazzling Darkness of God’s Triune Love: Introducing Evangelicals to the Theology of Hans Urs von
The Death and Resurrection of Christ W. H. Griffith Thomas
The Death of Pride
The Deity of Christ & the Church Robert Peterson
The Divine Refuge Rev Charles Spurgeon
The Doctrinal Value of The First Chapters of Genesis Rev Dyson Hague
The Doctrinal Value of The First Chapters of Genesis Rev Dyson Hague
The Duties of Parents by Bishop J C Ryle
The Early Narratives of Genesis Professor James Orr
The End of Soap Oprah Dr Carl Trueman
The Excellence of Christ by Jonathan Edwards
The Faithful Promiser John MacDuff
The Fallacies of the Higher Criticism by Professor Franklin Johnson
The Fiture of Justification John Piper Book Review
The Fool's Creed DR Torrey
The Genesis of the New Faith Charles Cutler Torrey
The German Reformation part 1 DR Philip Schaff
The German Reformation part 2 Dr Philip Schaff
The Glory of God In Preaching Darrell W. Johnson
The Glory of The Cross Part 1 Samuel Zwemer
The Glory of The Cross part 10 Samuel Zwemer
The Glory of The Cross part 2 Samuel Zwemer
The Glory of The Cross Part 3 Samuel Zwemer
The Glory of The Cross Part 4 Samuel Zwemer
The Glory of The Cross part 5 Samuel Zwemer
The Glory of The Cross part 6 Samuel Zwemer
The Glory of The Cross part 7 Samuel Zwemer
The Glory of the Cross part 8 Samuel Zwemer
The Glory of The Cross part 9 Samuel Zwemer
The Goodness of The Law DR R C Sproul
The Gospel and the Poor Tim Keller
The Gospel of John A W Pink
The Gospel of John Set Free: Preaching without Anti-Judaism.
The Grace of Cheerful Giving Frank Cavalli
The Heart of The Gospel DR A T Pierson
The Historical Basis Of The Historical Faith by DR James Denney
The History of Justification by faith James Buchanan
The History of The Higher Criticism by Canon Dyson Hague
The Holy Spirit A W Pink
The Holy Spirit Rev C H Spurgeon
The Idea of Biblical Theology DR Geerhardus Vos
The Importance of Christian Scholarship Dr J G Machen
The Importance of Prayer DR A Torrey
THE IMPROVEMENT OF AFFLICTION Robert Murray McCheyne
The Internal Evidence For The Fourth Gospel Canon G Osborne
The Jewish World In The Days Of Christ Dr Edersheim
The Kingdom of God DR Geerhardus Vos
The Koran H A R Gibb
THE LAW OF APOSTASY IN ISLAM Dr Samuel Zwemer
The Life of Adoniran Judson
The Life of Dr Martin Luther part 1 by Philip Melanchon
The Life of Dr Martin Luther part 2 by Philip Melancthon
The Life of Elijah by A W Pink
The Life of Faith A W Pink
The Life of John Bunyan
The Life of King David A W Pink
The Life of King David part 2 A W Pink
The Life Of Matthew Henry
The Life of Stephen Charnock by William Symington
The Magic Bullet Sebastian Heck
The Mohammedan Controversy (1897) Dr Samuel Zwemer
The Mosaic Authorship by Professor George Wright
THE MOSLEM DOCTRINE OF GOD Dr Samuel Zwemer
The Most Important Question DR Torrey
The Need For Revival Dr A Torrey
The New Life Andrew Murray
The Oppresion of Man Thomas Manton
The Origin of Paul's Religion by Dr J G Machen
The Origin of the 'ID AL-ADHA Dr Richard Bell
The Origins of The Qur'an Rev W Goldsack
The Pastor and the Funeral by Harry Reeder
The Peace that Passes R.C. Sproul Jr.
The Persecution of the Church by Dr Philip Schaff
The Person of Christ Dr John Owen
The Place of Christ In The New Testament by Dr James Denney
The Pleasures of God video 4 Pastor John Piper
The Pleasures of God Video 1 John Piper
The Pleasures of God Video 2 Pastor John Piper
The Pleasures of God video 3 Pastor John Piper
The Pleasures of God video 5 Pastor John Piper
The Power of Prayer Andrew Murray
The Power of The Word Of God R A Torrey
The Precious Gift of Baby Talk John Piper
The Rainbow In The Clouds John MacDuff
The Reformation by Dr Philip Schaff
The Refutatation of Dispensationalism by A W Pink
The Resurrection of Christ Dr J G Machen
The Sacrifice of Jesus Christ John Calvin
The Secret of Blessing DR R A Torrey
The Secret of Blessing DR R A Torrey
The Soul-Shaping Reality of the Gospel: An Interview with David Wells
The Spirit of Rebellion R C Sproul jr
The Study Bible developed and located around the world!
The Tabernacle In The Wilderness by Professor David Heagle
The Testimony of Christ To The Old Testement William Cavan DD
The Theology of John Calvin by DR Philip Schaff
The Theology of Romans by Dr Charles Hodge
The Things of God R.C. Sproul
The Triune God: Good, Beautiful, and True Harry Reeder
The Unholy Pursuit of God in Moby Dick Dr R C Sproul
The Vanity of the world Rev John Newton
The Victory Parade We Don't deserve R C Sproul Jr
The Way of Holiness Jonathan Edwards
The Way The World Thinks DR A Mohler
The Westminster Assembly Project Chad Dixhoorn
The Will of God In Prayer DR A Torrey
The Witness of Paul by Dr J G Machen
The Word Of God B B Warfield
The Work Of The Holy Spirit Dr A Kuyper
The Works Flavius Josephus
The Year in Books Keith Mathison
Theological Articles
Theology in the time of Charlemagne
This Isn’t Going to Be As Easy As It Looks by Keith Mathison
Time to (Re)Discover Hebrews Sinclair Ferguson
To Be Deep in History Keith Mathison
Truly Reformed Theology Burk Parsons
Truth of the Christian Religion in Six Books by Hugo Grotius. Corrected and Illustrated with Notes b
Two Thumbs Down by R.C. Sproul Jr.
United in the (whole) Truth Burk Parsons
Unqualified Christians Burk Parsons
'Uthman and the Recension of the Koran Leon Caetani
Vehicles for Giving the Self: An Interview with Michael Card
Video on the Prosperity gospel John Piper
Video:The Prosperity gospel Pastor John Piper
Video:The Supremacy of Christ in a Postmodern World Dr D. A .Carson
VINCENT'S NT WORD STUDIES
Walking With God George Whitefield
Water of Life John Bunyan
Way to Christ Boehme, Jakob (1575-1624)
We Believe the Bible and You Do Not Keith Mathison
Western Seminary Missions Conference
What is Christianity? Dr J G Machen
What makes the Apostles Creed so special? By Simon Peter Sutherland
When To Pray Dr A Torrey
Who Belongs To The Church? by John Calvin
Who Is My Brother Dr R C Sproul jr
Why Jesus Christ Died Rev T .T. Shields Famous Canadian Preacher
With Passion R C Sproul jr
Work of Jesus Christ John Bunyan
Writing Fo God 's Glory Burk Parson
Young Women,Idolatry and The Powerful Gospel Elyse
神的意思原是好的