1. Among the two New Testament sacraments baptism holds the prior
2. The principal efficient cause of baptism is Christ, who not
alone but one with the Father and the Holy Spirit, determined what
pertains to the founding of baptism, and truly also ordered that
the rite was to be done frequently, and it leads back to the
efficient fruit for the conferring of salvation.
3. The impulsive internal cause is the divine goodness; the external
cause is the merit of Christ the mediator.
4. The lesser principal efficient cause ordinarily is the minister
of the church; extraordinarily in cases of necessity also a layman
5. The material of baptism is true and natural water, and the act
of washing, which either by immersing or by sprinkling, is able
once or by three persons.
6. The form of baptism is the word of institution or that he is
washed in the name of the Father, and the Son, and the Holy Spirit.
7. The end to which, which is also the subject of baptism, are
humans carnally born and brought forth into the light; and these
all, males equally and females; not only adults, but truly also
8. Meanwhile we believe the infants of believing parents, as it
happened by private baptism, by an extraordinary grace of God to
be reborn and saved; however we do not commit the infants of the
unbelieving to baptism by divine judgement, and not indeed do we
dare to snatch away those from unwilling parents through force
and thus to baptize.
9. The end of which, which is also the effect of baptism, the
nearer is the regeneration or renewal of those being baptized;
the farther is their eternal salvation.
10. However, this, which touches the nearer end, occurs in
diversity, in respect to diverse subjects. For to all infants
indeed equally through baptism faith is first conferred and sealed,
through which the merit of Christ is applied to them. Truly to
those adults , who received faith from the word before the
undertaking of baptism, baptism seals and confirms them. Not only
now, when it has been undertaken, but also after, and through all
life, by faith efficiently it brings forth the confirming of faith
and the further renewal.
11. To the signifying efficiencey of baptism, by which infants are
transferred from the power of satan into spiritual liberty, the
ancient rite of exorcism, with the sign of the cross and by the
vowed renouncing of satan, while indeed indifferent, yet, rightly
it is observed, how it is also for the designated covenant of grace,
because the baptized enter into it with God, the sponsors or
godparents are joined to the pious rite.
12. Baptism once having been conferred according to the institution
of God ought not to be repeated to the same subject.
13. Baptism is able to be defined, that it is a sacred action
instituted by God, in which humans without discrimination of sex or
age are washed with water in the name of the Father, and the Son,
and the Holy Spirit, so that they they are regenerated and renewed,
which is the cause of the following eternal salvation.
On the holy supper.
1. Another New Testament sacrament follows baptism, which we call
the Lord's Supper.
2. The principal efficient cause of this sacrament is Christ, who
instituted the sacrament and ordered it to be frequent, and he
does this up to this time, so that the action about the external
symbols, according to the administration of his command, have the
reason and force of a sacrament.
3. The impulsive internal cause of this instituted sacrament is the
goodness and love of Christ towards his; the external is the merit
of his suffering and death. Especially as far as the administration
of the supper has the real prseences of the body and blood of
Christ wherever it may be, the same institution of Christ has the
principal reason of the impulsive cause; the lesser principal
impulsive cause is the consecration of the elements, done by the
minister according to the institution of Christ.
4. The ministerial cause is the regular minister of the church, who
consecrates the external elements and distributes them to the
5. The material of the holy supper is two-fold, earthly and
6. The earthly materials are true bread and true wine, as far as
the substance; the bread either unleavened or leavened, and either
finer or softer or more coarse, either the common or the usual;
not only wheat bread, but also of other grains. Also red wine is
used in like manner or white, and it may be either undiluted or
diluted a little with water.
7. However the bread and wine have the reason of matter in the holy
supper, as far as they are dispensed and accepted, chewed and drunk.
8. The heavenly material of the holy supper is the true and
substantial body, likewise truly the substance of the blood of
Christ, the former with the bread, the latter with the blessed wine
is sacramentally united, thus that the body of Christ with the
bread and the blood of Christ with the wine truly and really are
dispensed and by all the communicants equally the body is accepted
by the mouth, the former is chewed, and the latter is drunk.
9. The form of the supper consists in the words of institution.
10. The end to whom, or the subject, the ones being admitted to
participation in the holy supper, are Christian humans, who are
able to test themselves.
11. To all those who are admitted to communion at the holy supper,
both blessed symbols ought to be given wholly.
12. The end of which, which is also the fruit or effect of this
sacrament, and it the intermediate, is (1.) the remembrance and
commemoration of the death of Christ, which is accomplished by
faith; (2.) the seal of the promise about the forgiveness of sins,
and the confirmation of our faith; (3.) our grafting into Christ
and a spiritual nourishment towards faith; (4.) the mutual love of
the communicants, and more similar things. The ultimate end is the
eternal salvation of the communicants.
13. It is possible to define the sacred supper as a sacred action
instituted by Christ, in which the body of the same is given with
the blessed bread to be chewed, and whis blood is given with the
blessed wine to be drunk by Christian communicants, and from this
both are accepted, the body is chewed with the bread, the blood is
drunk with the wine, in commemoration of the death of Christ, the
seal of the forgiveness of sins and the confirmation of faith to
On predestination and reprobation.
1. God in time leads some humans and by a plan to salvation, and
the same people and by the same plan by which they are led in time
to salvation, God has decreed from eternity. And they see this by
the names of predestination and election.
2. However by the words of predestination and election are
indicated now the decree about the whole work of leading humans to
salvation, then peculiarly a decree about certain humans under a
certain plan of the knowledge of salvation certain to the divine
3. For recognizing the decree of predestination, in so far as it
sees the whole business of human salvation, the order of divine
acts is seen diligently, just as in the sign of reason according to
divine revelation other things are followed by others.
4. And thus, because God loved his humans for the highest goodness
not only when in the first humans he created them in his divine
image, truly also seen in Adam's fall, but also sinners are
accompanied by his love, so that for the cause of procuring their
salvation he gave them the Son the redeemer for all; also it is
recognized, that, when God from all eternity foresees, humans by
sin to be gone to corruption, however for the cause of procuring
their salvation he decided to give the Son, who for all paid the
price of redemption.
5. Then, just as God declared in time, by act they had followed
salvation through the merit of Christ, those who had believed in
Christ; so that however all who were able to believe in Christ, God
himself thus proclaimed the doctrine of faith, so that it was
possible to extend to the ears and minds of all, thus it is
recognized, that God wished from eternity, that all humans believe,
and to have decided for, the mediator whom he decided to sin, and
by the published doctrine about him, to offer his embrace to all.
6. And in what manner God joined in time the divine strength by his
word, through which the supernatural assent of faith, by the word
supplied by himself, and thus faith in Christ is able to be excited,
and is excited, how often a human without a wicked resistance
admits that word; thus it is certain, that God from eternity
decided, with proclaiming the word in time strongly and graciously
to go along thus with the producing effect of faith, so that no one
might be without faith, unless those in the middle of faith or
grace being conferred had despised the same.
7. Further just as God in time justifies all, who believe in Christ
and, unless the same by sins against the conscience drive out faith
and the Holy Spirit, more and more he renews, or he sanctifies, and
he preserves that same faith and he confirms it continuously to the
end of life; thus it is known, that God from eternity decided, for
all who will believe in Christ, in time to confer the grace of
justification and renewal, by the means rightly to sanctify the
users further, and to preserve their faith and to confirm it
continuously to the end of their life.
8. Finally, just as God in time finally saves by act all who
believe in Christ, also the eternal decree of God is recognized
about all being certainly saved who finally believe in time.
9. And because God from eternity foresaw which humans might finally
believe, and so that he decides to save these, that the eternal
decree about the eternal salvation being shared to the finally
believing, in view of the merits of Christ and the foreseen faith
in Christ, done and precisely seen it is called especially by the
name of predestination or election.
10. However from the opposite, just as God in time punishes by
eternal damnation humans who either never believed, or on the
contrary they drove out faith and ended life without faith, thus it
is admitted, that God determined from eternity, those, who died
without final faith, to damn eternally.
11. And just as God foresaw from eternity, which humans in time
depart without faith in Christ, thus in the same way, so that such
is distinctly recognized, he determined to damn them eternally. And
this decree is called reprobation.
12. To election strictly speaking pertains the virtually causing
cause I. the efficient cause, which is the Triune God.
13. The impulsive internal cause is the goodness or mercy and free
favor of God.
14. The external impulsive cause, and it the principal, is the
merit of Christ.
15. The lesser principal external impulsive cause of the decree of
election is faith in Christ, and it final faith.
16. The object of predestination is human sinners, but finally
believing, and them all and singly.
17. The nearer end of election is the same salvation, applied to the
elect in time; however the ultimate end is the glory of the divine
18. The decree of election, according to what is to this point, is
determined to be (1) particular and (2) immutable.
19. It is possible to define election or predestination broadly
speaking, that it is an eternal decree of God, by which God from his
immense mercy to all humans, whom He foresaw falling into sin, to
send a mediator and to offer through a universally embracing
proclamation, also to all, who will not be fighting, to justify all
believing and by the means of grace further to renew those using
the means and to protect faith continuously to the end of life in
them, and then those finally believing he arranges to save for the
glory of his goodness.
20. Strictly speaking predestination or election is able to be
defined, that it is an eternal decree of God, that God from his
immense mercy foresaw those humans all and singly, who will be
finally believing in Christ, according to that same merit of Christ,
by final faith being apprehended and thus foreseen, he arranges to
give eternal salvation, being the cause of that same salvation of
them and the cause of his glory.
21. Reprobation similarly is a decree of God, and to such an extent
it recognizes the efficient cause to be the triune God.
22. The internal impulsive cause is the punishing justice of God.
23. The external impulsive cause are human sins, also in so far as
they are joined with final unbelief.
24. The object of reprobation are impious humans finally
25. The end of reprobation is the punishing of sinners and the
glory of the divine punishing justice.
26. Reprobation also is a decree not only particular, but also
27. It is possible to define reprobation, that it is an eternal
decree of God, which God out of his avenging justice decides to
damn finally unbelieving human sinners according to their own sins
when joined to final unbelief for the punishing of their sins and
the glory of his divine justice.
On the church.
1. Those humans, whom God, according to his eternal decree, gave
faith and his grace, collectively together are called the church.
And indeed, seen by reason of the present life, they are called the
militant church, however by reason of the other or future life the
triumphant church; granted even that the name of church embraces
both assemblies, the other, absolutely speaking, precisely indicates
the militant church.
2. This same church militant also is accepted in two parts: in one
way properly and precisely for the congregation of the truly
believing and of the saints, who are implanted into Christ the head
through faith, just as the living members are made one with the same
mystical body; in another way improperly and by synecdoche, for the
whole gathered assembly out of which those truly believing come,
saints mixed with hypocrites and evil ones.
3. The head of the church, properly understood, is the God-man
Christ, not only by reason of the dignity and perfection on account
of the members of the body, truly also especially as far as the
virtues and power, not only moral, but truly also physical.
4. And as in the human body there are various connections, through
which the living soul from the head into the members are diverted;
thus the manifold power of Christ the head extends itself into the
church partly through various functions from the things established
by that one in the church, partly through gifts given to the church,
both ministry and sanctification.
5. But beyond Christ another certain head of the church, who visibly
governs the universal church in place of Christ, is recognized
neither from necessity, nor from the free will and institution of
6. The efficient cause of the church is the triune God and Christ,
7. The internal impulsive cause is the goodness or free favor of
Christ; the external or meritorious cause is Christ the mediator.
8. Humans truly believing and holy constitute the matter of the
9. The form of the church consists in a true union of the believing
and holy with Christ through a true and living faith.
10. The end of the church, and it the nearer end, is the building up
of both the whole body, and the individual members; the ultimate end,
the eternal salvation of them.
11. The attributes of the church are commonly constituted as four:
namely that it is 1. one, 2. holy, 3. catholic,, and 4. apostolic.
12. However the church is one partly absolutely and in itself,
through the internal unity of faith in Christ, which is joined with
love of God, but also love of our neighbor by an individual joining;
partly exclusively and in opposition to many assemblies of the same
species or plan, either coexisting or alternately succeeding to
13. The external unity, as far as its profession of the doctrine of
faith and participation of the same sacraments, and also the
conversation and communion of life though the mutual office of
brotherly love does not equally pertain to the attributes of the
church; for it is not perpetual. However the unity by reason of the
one visible head, the vicar of Christ, has absolutely no place.
14. The church is properly called holy, first indeed, because its
head is holy; then, because the members also are all holy both by
imputed righteousness, and by inherent righteousness, however which
last sanctity is imperfect.
15. The church is and is said [to be] catholic, not in so far as it
is orthodox, but as far as [it is] universal 1. of places, peoples
and races, 2. with respect of persons, namely all the faithful, 3.
by reason of time.
16. Further the church is said to be apostolic, because it embraces
the apostolic doctrine by faith and holds it complete.
17. The effect of the church properly speaking is the vivification
of those, who are now in it, and the generation, or regeneration. of
18. It is possible to define the church properly speaking, that it
is an assembly of the truly believing and saints, gathered by God
and Christ the God-man from the free favor toward humans on account
of the merit of Christ, the gathering of those united by the Lord
and his redeemer Christ through true faith, in which Christ through
word and sacraments repeatedly regenerates some and implanted those
through faith in him one with others and now before rebirth he
vivifies and sanctifies for the building and salvation of the whole
body and individual members.
19. The church of Christ spread throughout the world holds many
partial assemblies, who advertise for themselves the same name and
definition of church. And the distinction of the church is noted as
universal and particular. Also particular churches are able to be
subdistinguished as simple, which do not stand with other churches,
and composite, which stand with other churches.
20. Meanwhile that more distinguished praise and the promises of
perpetual duration, which are assigned in Scripture to the church,
are not assigned to some certain particular church, but they ought
to be referred to the church of Christ seen absolutely.
21. The truly believing and saints, who constitute the church
properly speaking, have everywhere in the world to themselves the
joined non-holy, or sinners, hidden and manifest, not only as far as
cohabitation and purely civil society, truly also thus, that they
have some ecclesiastical society and external communion with the
truly believing; and that when this happens, it is customary for the
name of church to be attributed to these indiscriminate churches in
a way through synecdoche.
22. However it truly happens, that, when saints and non-saints are
gathered, sometimes those, otherwise these stand out, and the holy
indeed are estimated to stand out by reason of doctrine, when it,
harmful errors being excluded, is publicly and purely preached; then
as far as the integrity of morals, when good examples of Christian
virtues thrive, vices being suppressed; however the non-holy
outweigh by reason of morals indeed, when defaults proceed or reign
with impunity, however by reason of doctrine, when false dogma
publicly is scattered and the true doctrine and its confessors are
suppressed: thus then at last the church with the joined non-holy is
said to be the church of Christ simply and absolutely, when the holy
by reason of doctrine and morals are outstanding; when however the
non-holy, especially by reason of doctrine and public profession,
are outstanding in the church, then that indistinct assembly,
gathered from saints and non-saints, is not called the church
absolutely, but a church according to that, or with adding a corrupt
23. And this distinction pertains between a true or pure church, in
which truly believing and saints constitute a greater part, and
false or impure, in which the non-holy erring in the doctrine of
faith constitute the greater part.
24. The true or pure church is able to be described, that it is a
gathering of humans, in which all, having those things necessary for
salvation by believing and for sanctity of life by doing, without
harmful errors being mixed in, are taught from the word of God and
are administered the sacraments according to the institution of
Christ, and thus spiritual people are brought forth by the son of
God, spiritual people who through true faith are joined to Christ
the head and are made one body in him.
25. And thus it is customary to be done, that to churches so called
through synecdoche also in this way are applied the attributes of
the church properly speaking, that it is called one, holy, catholic
26. Although truly many assemblies of the called, seen singly, are
rightly called churches of Christ, however not therefore do all of
those chosen constitute one catholic or universal church, which
according to the content in them, the whole multitude of those truly
believing and saints rightly called are called the catholic or
universal church of Christ.
27. Truly also in a corrupt church those spiritual people are
possible to be born, and spiritual sons are born by God through the
word of God, which is preached there also, and they are complete in
substance through baptism.
28. Otherwise the church properly speaking indeed is not distinctly
visible, but only confusedly. This particular church, which is said
synechdochly, is thus visible, so that just as a true church, as
far as its members are concerned, may be distinctly recognized and
are able to be discerned from false or corrupt churches.
29.However it is possible to be done, and it is divinely proclaimed
to be, so that the church for some time has none of its parts
visible, or that the visible church straightforwardly fails.
30. Meanwhile to the particular true, or pure, church, that such,
from humans experienced in Scripture or known by Christians, two
marks are sufficient: namely the preaching of the pure word and the
lawful administration of the sacraments.
31. The ecclesiastical ministry in its own way represents the church,
and also councils or sacred gatherings of humans learned in holy
doctrine, by the public authority of those called together and by a
conveniently orderly beginning in considering and thoroughly judging
controversies of faith and Christian doctrine according to Scripture,
and what pertains to the external order and good order of the church,
being instituted and outstanding of those occupied with the building
of the church and the glory of God.
32. Councils are divided into ecumenical or universal, which
contained some bishops and learned men either out of the whole Roman
world, or almost the whole church, or at least by that whole church
their decrees were approved and received, and particular councils,
which from at least one of the two parts of the church were called
together. Some councils, deriving their name from the learned men
of one nation called together are called national councils. Others
consisting of men from one diocese are called diocesan councils.
33. Councils, which have an undoubted authority, do not have such
authority from this, that the church, whish is the pillar of truth,
is represented, but truly it is an authority dependent on the Sacred
Scriptures and from the agreement of the synod's decisions with them,
although a certain authority comes to their decrees from the latter
agreement from the consensus of the churches through the whole world.
34. To the unity of the church is opposed 1. schisms, or divisions
of the church in parts, the mutual love and peace being taken away,
as far as the actual ecclesiastical or fraternal communication is
concerned , or as far as the faith of individuals is concerned.
35. However, schisms arise partly out of dissension about doctrines
in the foundation of faith, especially if they come to corruptions
of doctrine by rage and by deceits, partly from dissension on less
necessary parts of doctrine, or ceremonies, or things which pertain
to ecclesiastical discipline, if someone obtrudes into someone
else's under the opinion of necessity, from which those, holding to
their liberty, prefer to, and do, abstain.
36. But those who are separated form some church by an unjust
excommunication and who cease to commune, it is not possible to
impute the guilt of schismatics to them, and the hatred of those,
which the authors of the schism accomplished, it is not opposed to
37. 2. Syncretism is opposed to the unity of the church, or it is a
union in fraternal and ecclesiastical harmony of dissenting parties
in religion, not obstinately disagreeing, so that either errors of
doctrine on the part of the dissenting are tolerated, or at least
those same erring persons are tolerated within the ecclesiastical
society, as brothers in Christ and co-heirs of eternal life; which,
however, is a harmful tolerance of both.
38. Finally 3. and especially the Antichrist opposes the Christian
Church, whether it may be a series or complex of many humans in the
same impiety of succession to themselves, or indeed to give as
private property a kingdom in the church, or an arrogating to
themselves of divine power in everything, especially it is true of
those having a seat in the city of Rome, of those also bringing in
various corruptions of doctrine and public sanctity and doing so by
fraud and much violence, by the oppressing of confessors of the true
faith, of those fighting against, thus however, so that that impiety
at length is publicly manifested and while that impiety and
Antichrist are increased, Christ comes to judgment, and they are
On the ecclesiastical ministry.
1. For the gathering and preservation of the church it is necessary
that certain humans perform the office of preaching the word and
administering the sacraments, so that through these means faith is
conferred on humans and being received it is confirmed and increased.
And this is that office, which is called the ecclesiastical ministry.
2. The efficient principal cause of the ecclesiastical ministry when
seen in itself, then by reason of the ministers, who by that cause
are affected, is the triune God, and Christ the God-man.
3. However God calls humans to the ecclesiastical office sometimes
immediately or with no interceding arbitrary works of other humans,
sometimes mediately, truly through the church, which in the name of
God commits that office to certain persons. Since it is done in this
way, the church is able to be called the lesser principal cause of
the calling of ministers.
4. And this right or power of constituting ministers applies also to
particular churches separated from the community of other churches
through an unjust excommunication.
5.To the calling of ministers, which is done mediately by the
congregation, three things are present: The election or judgment
about the dignity of the person brought to the sacred ministry, by
reason of learning and gifts for the acts of the office rightly
meeting the requirements, and the designation of that person to the
ministerium. 2. Ordination or the solemn inauguration through
certain rites of an elected person to the sacred office. 3. The
Call in it's special use, or a concession and entrusting of the
function of the power to teach the Word of God in public gatherings
and administering the sacraments.
6. And to this in diverse ways applies the ecclesiastical and
secular order. The former is, to explore erudition and the other
necessary gifts of the one who is chosen and then to bring judgment
to those things; then to ordain the chosen or elect person by solemn
rite; both of those are done in the name of the church. The secular
order almost agrees in the judgment of ecclesiastical order about
the aptitude of the person, since the assembly has heard about the
external gifts and sincerity of doctrine, and also about the
person's way of life, it pays attention whether by merit the person
will justly admonish. Likewise joined with the ecclesiastical order
it designates or selects a person for the ministry, and thus with
unanimous consent it confers the power of teaching the word and
administering the sacraments to the elected person.
7. However, the ecclesiastical ministry introduces the power and the
office 1. of publicly teaching and regularly administering the
sacraments, 2. the power and duty of forgiving and retaining sins.
8. It pertains to the office of teaching, that the revealed
doctrines of the divine faith be clearly put forward and be solidly
confirmed for the comprehension of the hearers, also the errors of
the opposition, which are to be feared, lest they are insinuated
into the mind from other directions, are to be distinctly
demonstrated and as fighting with the word of God and arguing
against harmful things, similarly, those things which are to be
done, according to the law and offices of the Christians in whatever
state they are to be clearly taught and set forth to them, being led
to firm arguments and for the persuading by the appropriate things
humans are excited and moved; however sins and vices being fled from,
as far as the guilt and determined punishment are concerned, these
things are to be pointed out and from them the minds of humans are
restrained and changed; finally the consolation of minds from
afflictions and anxiety, by agreement of the same and by an offering
of divine things they are encouraged and strengthened.
9. In the administration of the sacraments the ministers ought to be
attentive, not only that they observe accurately the uniformity of
the institution of these sacraments, but truly also, that they
confer these means of grace at the right time on those who have the
need nor are unworthy, but they do not equally admit the unworthy.
10. As far as the office of forgiving and retaining sins, it is
observed, that the forgiveness of sins is announced not only
universally and indeterminately to all those who are penitent and
believing in Christ, but truly also determinately and to the
individual who has proclaimed the probably signs of penitence and
faith by confession and they ask to be absolved from their sins. Nor
is that a bare declaration, but it is efficacious for the
confirmation of the remission of sins worked by God.
11. Similarly as far as the retention of sins is concerned the
ministry of the church is, that not only he declare the wrath of God
and punishment universally to unbelieving humans and to all the
impenitent, and truly also in the particular and singular he denies
the forgiveness of sins for enormous and notorious sinners and he
prevents him from the concord of the church or from the use of the
holy supper, or he ejects him straighforward from the society of the
church and hands him over to Satan. This action is not a bare
declaration, but it is an effective sentence.
12. And then the ministers of the church also are concerned about
external things of the church or rites and ceremonies, in themselves
indeed indifferent, but intended for the building of the church,
done by the public authority of the church, not however for the
reason of reverence or merit toward God; but being instituted for
the external education, they are celebrated, and not changed or
eliminated unless it is done prudently and from the use of the
13. A correlate of the ministers of the church, and also the end of
which of the minister, is the assembly of those who hear them
teaching and the sharersof that teaching are restored by their
ministry and by the administration of the sacraments.
14. The nearer end of which of the ecclesiastical ministry is the
reconciliation of humans with God through faith in Christ and the
increase in faith and other Christian virtues; the ultimate end is
the eternal salvation of the same.
15. The ecclesiastical ministry is defined as a public office,
ordained by God, in which certain persons, legitimately called and
ordained, teach the word of god, administer the sacraments, forgive
and retain sins and they care for and direct other things, which
pertain to the church, for the conversion, sanctification and
eternal salvation of humans.
On the political magistrates.
1. Another state, which has a place in the church, is the state of
those, who, being powerful in civil power, preside over others and
to such an extent that they have been entrusted with the care of the
public welfare, and they are commonly called magistrates.
2. The efficient cause of the office of magistrate both in itself,
and as far as they are borne and administered by a certain person,
is the Triune God and Christ according to his human nature.
3. The office of magistrate is entrusted to certain persons by God
either immediately and with no arbitrary works of humans interceding,
or mediately or by interceding plans of humans and their voluntary
works, either through election, or through succession, or through
4. The power and office of magistrates it directed towards
everything that the health of the republic depends on, to things
both civil and sacred, however those are dealt with in different
5. Civil things in themselves are subordinate to the power of the
magistrate, so that he is able to admonish and to arrange all things
for his judgement, and he does these things in accordance with
natural and divine law.
6. However, that which pertains to sacred things, indeed the dogmas
of faith in themselves are not under the power of the magistrate,
also from those divinely written actions, which are common to all
Christians, the magistrates themselves are to observe and cultivate,
those which are truly appropriate to the ministry to the church, he
not to claim those to himself but leave them to the church. However
just as they are accustomed to reckon with the sacred things all the
rest, which are appointed to the worship of God and they will do
them either for the conservation of true religion or for the renewal
of true religion when it is collapsed. Thus it is known, that those
things in their way are named as under the power of the magistrate.
7. The duty itself of the magistrate is customarily discussed in
terms of legislating, judging and punishing.
8. Especially, as far as the care of sacred things is concerned, it
pertains to the magistrate, to establish suitable servants of the
church, to erect and preserve schools and churches, to provide for
ministers an honest support; to institute visitations and councils,
to write and guard ecclesiastical laws; to dispense ecclesiastical
property; to preserve ecclesiastical discipline; to inquire into
heretics, and likewise into inferior servants of the churches and
schools and other individuals of whatever similar kinds there may be
and, to compel them to stand for judgement; to punish those
convicted of heresy or crimes; to abrogate heretics and idolatrous
cults which are manifest and condemned by the church, and, so that
the church is purged from them, to care etc.
9. However the magistrate, in those sacred things which are under
civil power, ought to make use of the council of the honorable
doctors and pastors of the church.
10. Because the Christian magistrate, besides the legislative and
judicial power, also has an avenging power, or by punishing the
contentious, it is certain that this power extends also to the
capital punishment of criminals.
11. Also a magistrate is able to wage war against the unjust power
of the enemy which tries to subdue the innocent and the whole
republic, repelling the enemy and guarding both religion and liberty
12. However the magistrate is to be carefully warned, 1. that he
should not approach war, as long as more mild means are possible,
nor 2. to war to fill up his desires, but only for the cause of the
public welfare and tranquility, and finally 3. not to wage war
unless by means of legitimate modes and means.
13. A correlate to the supreme magistrate are his subjects and by
this name all are understood that is contained in the republic, not
however that they are the same as the magistrate, nor is the
difference between lay and clergy abolished.
14. And indeed subjects are obligated to apply to the magistrates
honor, obedience, tribute, and requests for the welfare of those
15. The nearer end of the civil magistrate is the public welfare,
the ultimate is the glory of God.
16. It is possible to define a magistrate as abstractly conceived,
that it is a public office, ordained by God, in which certain persons
legitimately called and equipped with power about things civil and
likewise sacred in the republic, bring forth laws, exercise justice
and punish transgressors, defend the republic against external
enemies, for the cause of the public welfare.
17. It is possible to define a magistrate concretely, that it is a
person or a group of persons divinely called and equipped with power
about civil and sacred things to make laws, to exercise judgment and
to punish the contentious, and then to defend civil society, for the
cause of the public welfare.
About the domestic state and society, and especially the state
of marriage, parents, and masters.
1. The third state, which occurs within the church, and which is a
nursery of ecclesiastical and political order, is the domestic
state, which includes the relationships of marriage, parents, and
2. The efficient cause of the marriage relationship is God, either
marriage seen of what sort it is in itself and its nature, or seen
from the parts joined together.
3. However the causes of marriage are also, by an act of being drawn
together, the spouses themselves and their parents in whose power
4. The impulsive internal cause on the part of the spouses is that
natural inclination to the procreating of offspring and to a mutual
partnership of life.
5. The impulsive external cause is strong desire of humans of either
of the two sexes and the necessity for a mutual helper both for the
procreation of offspring, and for being able to live life well.
6. The causality of the efficient cause of marriage, on the part of
the married partners is the consent, which is manifested through the
external act of the mutual and free promise about the cohabitation
of the married people.
7. In its own way, the priestly blessing or the joining instituted
by the Christian church also pertains to the efficient cause of
8. The material of marriage are the same persons who are coupled by
a joining, one male and one female, fit for paying the marriage debt,
and of whose joining consanguinity or affinity do not hinder.
9. Consanguinity is described, that it is a touching of persons, of
which one is descended from the other, or which (two or more) are
descended from one certain mother through a carnal generation.
10. Affinity is the nearness of people, proceeding from marriage,
thus that those who are related to a spouse, one of the two made one
flesh, by intervening consanguinity among themselves, by this also
those related to the other spouse are neighbors by flesh, because
the spouses are made one flesh among themselves.
11. For evaluating persons, for whom a legitimate marriage is sought,
among them the nearness of lines and grades of consanguinity and
affinity are observed.
12. A line is the collection of persons descending from the same
place branch, containing grades.
13. A line is divided into direct lines, which are among persons of
whom one from others descends and is called both ascending and
descending, and collateral lines, which is among persons, of whom
neither descends from another, but both descend from a certain third
14. Collateral lines are divided into equal lines, which are between
persons equally distant from a common branch, and unequal lines when
one is nearer to the related person, the other more remote from the
15. A grade is a condition of distant persons, by which is known how
far distant by male descent or blood relationship the two persons
differ between themselves.
16. The method of computing grades of propinquity or of the distance
of persons in this doctrine, for the diversity of lines, are
comprehended in three different rules.
17. The first rule, which pertains to direct lineage, is this: When
inquiring about who is related to whom, you compute how many
persons are between the two people, and then take one way, and that
is the number of grades between the two people.
18. The second rule, which looks at equal collateral lines, is this:
When inquiring about who is related to whom, the number of grades
the persons are distant from the common branch, that is how many
grades they are distant from each other.
19. The third rule, which pertains to unequal collateral lines, is
this: When inquiring about who is related to whom, by as many grades
as the persons are distant from the common branch, by so many grades
those persons are distant from each other.
20. And thus for the prohibition of marriage between those
consanguineously related, it is known that in direct line marriage
is prohibited simply and to an infinite number of grades, and this
is forbidden by divine law and natural or moral law.
21. In the equal collateral line marriages in the first grade are
prohibited by divine and natural law, and by positive ecclesiastical
law they are also prohibited in the second grade.
22. In the unequal collateral line marriages are prohibited in the
second grade by divine and natural law. But they are prohibited by
ecclesiastical law also in the third grade; on the contrary also in
the fourth grade, if one person is separated from the other by so
much as a grade from the common branch.
23. Affinity is usually established by three genera: affinity is of
the first genus, by which through the mediating of one married
person two people are drawn together; the second genus, which
through the mediating of two people, through as many marriages; the
third, which through the mediating of three persons through as many
marriages, brings two people together. But the second and third
genera of affinity today do not impede a marriage, however in the
first genus some marriages are prohibited.
24. Lines and grades of affinity are evaluated and computed in
proportion to the plan of the lines and the grades of consanguinity;
thus that, by the grades and lines of consanguinity a person has,
through which by an interceding marriage an affinity is contracted,
his consanguinity is joined to, and his grade and line of
consanguinity is evaluated and related by the marriage of the other
person, to whom that marriage is made.
25. And thus, by the grades and lines of consanguinity by which it
is not permitted to enter a marriage, by the same lines and grades
of affinity it is prohibited to contract a marriage with a relative
26. Especially in a direct line of affinity marriages are prohibited
by divine and natural law simply and to an infinite number of grades.
27. In a collateral line relations by marriage in the first grade are
prohibited from marriage by divine and natural law.
28. In an unequal collateral line a joining of marriage-relatives in
the second grade is prohibited by divine and natural law.
29. Among those marriages begun in prohibited grades this difference
is to be seen, that some are completely dissolved, and others with
an inflicted arbitrary penalty are able to be tolerated.
30. In those grades or marriage which are prohibited only by a
positive ecclesiastical law, in those degrees the church properly
speaking is able to grant a dispensation.
31. The form or the formal reason of marriage consists in the mutual
obligation of the spouses to faith and conjugal duties. Commonly
this is called the conjugal bond.
32. The conjugal bond is indissoluble, partly by the force of the
charges, partly, and especially, by the force of the divine
33. Meanwhile it is possible to effect a divorce, or a legitimate
and valid dissolution of the marriage as far as the conjugal bond is
concerned, by two causes: certainly in the case of adultery, it is
possible by that same law to loosed the bond and for the matrimony
to be dissolved, and it is permitted for the innocent one to enter
marriage again; and by the case of malicious desertion, where the
deserter himself in fact and heedlessly breaks the conjugal bond,
and the deserted, being declared free by a competent judge, is
permitted to enter a new marriage.
34. When persons illegitimately joined are separated, it is not a
divorce, but rather a declaration that in that joining there was no
35. Similarly when spouses are separated only as far as bed and
board are concerned, it is not properly divorce, but rather a
suspension of the act of cohabitation and the conjugal duties.
36. When one of the spouses dies, the conjugal bond is broken and the
surviving spouse is permitted to enter marriage a second time with
37. The end to which of marriage are humans of both sexes, whom
nature made suitable for marriage, apart from an ecclesiastical and
38. The nearer end of which, to which marriage in itself is ordained,
is the procreation of offspring and mutual help in life; the remoter
end is the preservation of the church and republic.
39. The intermediate accessory end is that marriage might be a
remedy against depraved desires.
40. Some marriage offices are common to both, while others are proper
to the husband or the wife.
41. To the common duties pertains the joining of minds, bodies, and
42. The duties of the husband are, to protect the wife, to guide her
by plans and warnings, to provide the necessities of their life,
and to refresh her by caressing conversation.
43. For the wives the duties are, to honor the husband and to obey
him, and to have care for family matters.
44. It is possible to define marriage, that it is an association or
conjunction of one male and one female, indissoluble, according to
the divine institution, born from the mutual consent of both, for
the generation of offspring and the mutual help of life.
45. The paternal association has an efficient cause from God, either
that in himself, or it is seen on the part of parents and children.
46. Also the parents pertain to the efficient cause of the paternal
association, in so far as they bear children from themselves.
47. The impulsive cause on the part of the parents is the natural
desire of generation children and likewise having children for
48. The causality of the efficient cause on the part of parents is
49. The material of the paternal relationship are parents and
children, although also the father alone, or the mother alone, with
son or daughter is enough.
50. The form consists in that mutual relation, through which parents
in respect to the children, and the children in respect to the
parents consider each other, and joined in this relationship, they
are obligated to mutual duties.
51. That relation and the bond of the relationship remains, as long
as parents and children live.
52. The intermediate end is the education of the offspring and the
health of the family; the ultimate, that the church and the republic
might be preserved.
53.The duty of parents consists in the suppling to children of food
and clothes, and likewise the care of the children, that they are
instructed in all piety, sciences and arts, to such an extant that
the child improves their temporal and eternal welfare.
54. The duty of children consists in love, honor and submission
being exhibited to parents, and likewise, if the necessity happens,
by the support of them; also bearing their zeal with a calm spirit.
55. It is possible to describe the paternal relation, that it is a
relation or conjunction of parents and children, divinely instituted
for the education of children and the welfare of the whole society.
56. The proprietary relation likewise has an efficient cause from
God, or that seen in itself, or by reason of those who are entrusted
with it and possess things.
57. The masters themselves and sometimes also the servants also
pertain to the efficient cause of this relationship.
58. The impulsive cause on the part of humans is the desires of this
life, which have a place not only on the part of the servants, but
truly also on the part of the masters.
59. The causality of the efficient cause on the part of humans
consists in this, that servants or captives of a just war are led,
or bought, or are freely contracted with the master.
60. The material of this relation are the masters and servants, and
likewise the mistresses and maids.
61. The formal reason of this relation consists in the mutual
relation and obligation of master and servant.
62. The nearer end is the mutual utility of ordering and being
subject in this society; the more remote is the convenience of
63. The duty of masters consists in the equal imposition of labor,
in the supplying of the necessities of this life, or by the payment
of promised wages; finally by direction of the workers, and
prudently and moderately disciplining them.
64. The duty of servants consists in the honor, submission, faith
and patience exhibited to the master.
65. It is possible to describe the proprietary relationship, that it
is a society or conjunction between master and servant, likewise
between mistresses and maids, ordained according to the divine will
for mutual utility.
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Spanish Theology Video ,La Perspectiva Circunstancial:Revelacion y Situación
Spanish Theology VideoLa Perspectiva Normativa: Dios y Su Palabra
St Anselm R C Sproul
St Cyprian Epistle 1
Strange Fire by A W Pink
Studies In Acts Group
Studies In Matthew Group
Studies in Popular Islam Dr Samuel Zwemer
Suffering And Consolation Rev C H Spurgeon
Sufferring Christians by A W Pink
Systematic Theology DR Cheung
Testament Hebrew Lexicon
That the Scriptures Might Be Fulfilled Piper
The Atonement by Dr J Gresham Machen
The Attributes of God by A W Pink
The Bands of Brotherhood Dr R C Sproul
The Bible and Modern Criticism by Professor F Bettex
The Bible Is The Word Of God A W Pink
The Book of Daniel Professor Joseph Wilson
The Bruised Reed by Richard Sibbes
The Cambridge 7
The Center of Biblical Theology in Acts: Deliverance and Damnation Display the Divine
The Children's crusade DR R C Sproul Jr
The Christian Faith DR Geerhardos Vos
The Christian in Complete Armour;William Gurnall, M.A.,
The Consecrated Life:The Life and Times of Francis Ridley Havergal by J J Burns
The Conversion of Dr Martin Luther
The Covenant Way Susan Hunt
The Cross by J C Ryle
The Cross John Newton 1725-1807
The Cross: A Call To The Fundamentals Of Religion J C Ryle
The Cup of Wrath Andrew Bonar
The Dangers of Mixing Law and Gospel Jason Stellman
The Dazzling Darkness of God’s Triune Love: Introducing Evangelicals to the Theology of Hans Urs von
The Death and Resurrection of Christ W. H. Griffith Thomas
The Death of Pride
The Deity of Christ & the Church Robert Peterson
The Divine Refuge Rev Charles Spurgeon
The Doctrinal Value of The First Chapters of Genesis Rev Dyson Hague
The Doctrinal Value of The First Chapters of Genesis Rev Dyson Hague
The Duties of Parents by Bishop J C Ryle
The Early Narratives of Genesis Professor James Orr
The End of Soap Oprah Dr Carl Trueman
The Excellence of Christ by Jonathan Edwards
The Faithful Promiser John MacDuff
The Fallacies of the Higher Criticism by Professor Franklin Johnson
The Fiture of Justification John Piper Book Review
The Fool's Creed DR Torrey
The Genesis of the New Faith Charles Cutler Torrey
The German Reformation part 1 DR Philip Schaff
The German Reformation part 2 Dr Philip Schaff
The Glory of God In Preaching Darrell W. Johnson
The Glory of The Cross Part 1 Samuel Zwemer
The Glory of The Cross part 10 Samuel Zwemer
The Glory of The Cross part 2 Samuel Zwemer
The Glory of The Cross Part 3 Samuel Zwemer
The Glory of The Cross Part 4 Samuel Zwemer
The Glory of The Cross part 5 Samuel Zwemer
The Glory of The Cross part 6 Samuel Zwemer
The Glory of The Cross part 7 Samuel Zwemer
The Glory of the Cross part 8 Samuel Zwemer
The Glory of The Cross part 9 Samuel Zwemer
The Goodness of The Law DR R C Sproul
The Gospel and the Poor Tim Keller
The Gospel of John A W Pink
The Gospel of John Set Free: Preaching without Anti-Judaism.
The Grace of Cheerful Giving Frank Cavalli
The Heart of The Gospel DR A T Pierson
The Historical Basis Of The Historical Faith by DR James Denney
The History of Justification by faith James Buchanan
The History of The Higher Criticism by Canon Dyson Hague
The Holy Spirit A W Pink
The Holy Spirit Rev C H Spurgeon
The Idea of Biblical Theology DR Geerhardus Vos
The Importance of Christian Scholarship Dr J G Machen
The Importance of Prayer DR A Torrey
THE IMPROVEMENT OF AFFLICTION Robert Murray McCheyne
The Internal Evidence For The Fourth Gospel Canon G Osborne
The Jewish World In The Days Of Christ Dr Edersheim
The Kingdom of God DR Geerhardus Vos
The Koran H A R Gibb
THE LAW OF APOSTASY IN ISLAM Dr Samuel Zwemer
The Life of Adoniran Judson
The Life of Dr Martin Luther part 1 by Philip Melanchon
The Life of Dr Martin Luther part 2 by Philip Melancthon
The Life of Elijah by A W Pink
The Life of Faith A W Pink
The Life of John Bunyan
The Life of King David A W Pink
The Life of King David part 2 A W Pink
The Life Of Matthew Henry
The Life of Stephen Charnock by William Symington
The Magic Bullet Sebastian Heck
The Mohammedan Controversy (1897) Dr Samuel Zwemer
The Mosaic Authorship by Professor George Wright
THE MOSLEM DOCTRINE OF GOD Dr Samuel Zwemer
The Most Important Question DR Torrey
The Need For Revival Dr A Torrey
The New Life Andrew Murray
The Oppresion of Man Thomas Manton
The Origin of Paul's Religion by Dr J G Machen
The Origin of the 'ID AL-ADHA Dr Richard Bell
The Origins of The Qur'an Rev W Goldsack
The Pastor and the Funeral by Harry Reeder
The Peace that Passes R.C. Sproul Jr.
The Persecution of the Church by Dr Philip Schaff
The Person of Christ Dr John Owen
The Place of Christ In The New Testament by Dr James Denney
The Pleasures of God video 4 Pastor John Piper
The Pleasures of God Video 1 John Piper
The Pleasures of God Video 2 Pastor John Piper
The Pleasures of God video 3 Pastor John Piper
The Pleasures of God video 5 Pastor John Piper
The Power of Prayer Andrew Murray
The Power of The Word Of God R A Torrey
The Precious Gift of Baby Talk John Piper
The Rainbow In The Clouds John MacDuff
The Reformation by Dr Philip Schaff
The Refutatation of Dispensationalism by A W Pink
The Resurrection of Christ Dr J G Machen
The Sacrifice of Jesus Christ John Calvin
The Secret of Blessing DR R A Torrey
The Secret of Blessing DR R A Torrey
The Soul-Shaping Reality of the Gospel: An Interview with David Wells
The Spirit of Rebellion R C Sproul jr
The Study Bible developed and located around the world!
The Tabernacle In The Wilderness by Professor David Heagle
The Testimony of Christ To The Old Testement William Cavan DD
The Theology of John Calvin by DR Philip Schaff
The Theology of Romans by Dr Charles Hodge
The Things of God R.C. Sproul
The Triune God: Good, Beautiful, and True Harry Reeder
The Unholy Pursuit of God in Moby Dick Dr R C Sproul
The Vanity of the world Rev John Newton
The Victory Parade We Don't deserve R C Sproul Jr
The Way of Holiness Jonathan Edwards
The Way The World Thinks DR A Mohler
The Westminster Assembly Project Chad Dixhoorn
The Will of God In Prayer DR A Torrey
The Witness of Paul by Dr J G Machen
The Word Of God B B Warfield
The Work Of The Holy Spirit Dr A Kuyper
The Works Flavius Josephus
The Year in Books Keith Mathison
Theology in the time of Charlemagne
This Isn’t Going to Be As Easy As It Looks by Keith Mathison
Time to (Re)Discover Hebrews Sinclair Ferguson
To Be Deep in History Keith Mathison
Truly Reformed Theology Burk Parsons
Truth of the Christian Religion in Six Books by Hugo Grotius. Corrected and Illustrated with Notes b
Two Thumbs Down by R.C. Sproul Jr.
United in the (whole) Truth Burk Parsons
Unqualified Christians Burk Parsons
'Uthman and the Recension of the Koran Leon Caetani
Vehicles for Giving the Self: An Interview with Michael Card
Video on the Prosperity gospel John Piper
Video:The Prosperity gospel Pastor John Piper
Video:The Supremacy of Christ in a Postmodern World Dr D. A .Carson
VINCENT'S NT WORD STUDIES
Walking With God George Whitefield
Water of Life John Bunyan
Way to Christ Boehme, Jakob (1575-1624)
We Believe the Bible and You Do Not Keith Mathison
Western Seminary Missions Conference
What is Christianity? Dr J G Machen
What makes the Apostles Creed so special? By Simon Peter Sutherland
When To Pray Dr A Torrey
Who Belongs To The Church? by John Calvin
Who Is My Brother Dr R C Sproul jr
Why Jesus Christ Died Rev T .T. Shields Famous Canadian Preacher
With Passion R C Sproul jr
Work of Jesus Christ John Bunyan
Writing Fo God 's Glory Burk Parson
Young Women,Idolatry and The Powerful Gospel Elyse