Compendium of Theology part 5 DR Baier
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 Chapter Ten

       On baptism.

       1. Among the two New Testament sacraments  baptism holds the prior

       2. The principal efficient cause of baptism is Christ, who not
       alone but one with the Father and the Holy Spirit, determined what
       pertains to the founding of baptism, and truly also ordered that
       the rite was to be done frequently, and it leads back to the
       efficient fruit for the conferring of salvation.

       3. The impulsive internal cause is the divine goodness; the external
       cause is the merit of Christ the mediator.

       4. The lesser principal efficient cause ordinarily is the minister
       of the church; extraordinarily in cases of necessity also a layman
       or woman.

       5. The material of baptism is true and natural water, and the act
       of washing, which either by immersing or by sprinkling, is able
       once or by three persons.

       6. The form of baptism is the word of institution or that he is
       washed in the name of the Father, and the Son, and the Holy Spirit.

       7. The end to which, which is also the subject of baptism, are
       humans carnally born and brought forth into the light; and these
       all, males equally and females; not only adults, but truly also

       8. Meanwhile we believe the infants of believing parents, as it
       happened by private baptism, by an extraordinary grace of God to
       be reborn and saved; however we do not commit the infants of the
       unbelieving to baptism by divine judgement, and not indeed do we
       dare to snatch away those from unwilling parents through force
       and thus to baptize.

       9. The end of which, which is also the effect of baptism, the
       nearer is the regeneration or renewal of those being baptized;
       the farther is their eternal salvation.

       10. However, this, which touches the nearer end, occurs in
       diversity, in respect to diverse subjects. For to all infants
       indeed equally through baptism faith is first conferred and sealed,
       through which the merit of Christ is applied to them. Truly to
       those adults , who received faith from the word before the
       undertaking of baptism, baptism seals and confirms them. Not only
       now, when it has been undertaken, but also after, and through all
       life, by faith efficiently it brings forth the confirming of faith
       and the further renewal.

       11. To the signifying efficiencey of baptism, by which infants are
       transferred from the power of satan into spiritual liberty, the
       ancient rite of exorcism, with the sign of the cross and by the
       vowed renouncing of satan, while indeed indifferent, yet, rightly
       it is observed, how it is also for the designated covenant of grace,
       because the baptized enter into it with God, the sponsors or
       godparents are joined to the pious rite.

       12. Baptism once having been conferred according to the institution
       of God ought not to be repeated to the same subject.

       13. Baptism is able to be defined, that it is a sacred action
       instituted by God, in which humans without discrimination of sex or
       age are washed with water in the name of the Father, and the Son,
       and the Holy Spirit, so that they they are regenerated and renewed,
       which is the cause of the following eternal salvation.

  Chapter Eleven

       On the holy supper.

       1. Another New Testament sacrament follows baptism, which we call
       the Lord's Supper.

       2. The principal efficient cause of this sacrament is Christ, who
       instituted the sacrament and ordered it to be frequent, and he
       does this up to this time, so that the action about the external
       symbols, according to the administration of his command, have the
       reason and force of a sacrament.

       3. The impulsive internal cause of this instituted sacrament is the
       goodness and love of Christ towards his; the external is the merit
       of his suffering and death. Especially as far as the administration
       of the supper has the real prseences of the body and blood of
       Christ wherever it may be, the same institution of Christ has the
       principal reason of the impulsive cause; the lesser principal
       impulsive cause is the consecration of the elements, done by the
       minister according to the institution of Christ.

       4. The ministerial cause is the regular minister of the church, who
       consecrates the external elements and distributes them to the

       5. The material of the holy supper is two-fold, earthly and

       6. The earthly materials are true bread and true wine, as far as
       the substance; the bread either unleavened or leavened, and either
       finer or softer or more coarse, either the common or the usual;
       not only wheat bread, but also of other grains. Also red wine is
       used in like manner or white, and it may be either undiluted or
       diluted a little with water.

       7. However the bread and wine have the reason of matter in the holy
       supper, as far as they are dispensed and accepted, chewed and drunk.

       8. The heavenly material of the holy supper is the true and
       substantial body, likewise truly the substance of the blood of
       Christ, the former with the bread, the latter with the blessed wine
       is sacramentally united, thus that the body of Christ with the
       bread and the blood of Christ with the wine truly and really are
       dispensed and by all the communicants equally the body is accepted
       by the mouth, the former is chewed, and the latter is drunk.

       9. The form of the supper consists in the words of institution.

       10. The end to whom, or the subject, the ones being admitted to
       participation in the holy supper, are Christian humans, who are
       able to test themselves.

       11. To all those who are admitted to communion at the holy supper,
       both blessed symbols ought to be given wholly.

       12. The end of which, which is also the fruit or effect of this
       sacrament, and it the intermediate, is (1.) the remembrance and
       commemoration of the death of Christ, which is accomplished by
       faith; (2.) the seal of the promise about the forgiveness of sins,
       and the confirmation of our faith; (3.) our grafting into Christ
       and a spiritual nourishment towards faith; (4.) the mutual love of
       the communicants, and more similar things. The ultimate end is the
       eternal salvation of the communicants.

       13. It is possible to define the sacred supper as a sacred action
       instituted by Christ, in which the  body of the same is given with
       the blessed bread to be chewed, and whis blood is given with the
       blessed wine to be drunk by Christian communicants, and from this
       both are accepted, the body is chewed with the bread, the blood is
       drunk with the wine, in commemoration of the death of Christ, the
       seal of the forgiveness of sins and the confirmation of faith to
       life eternal.

 Chapter Twelve

       On predestination and reprobation.

       1. God in time leads some humans and by a plan to salvation, and
       the same people and by the same plan by which they are led in time
       to salvation, God has decreed from eternity. And they see this by
       the names of predestination and election.

       2. However by the words of predestination and election are
       indicated now the decree about the whole work of leading humans to
       salvation, then peculiarly a decree about certain humans under a
       certain plan of the knowledge of salvation certain to the divine

       3. For recognizing the decree of predestination, in so far as it
       sees the whole business of human salvation, the order of divine
       acts is seen diligently, just as in the sign of reason according to
       divine revelation other things are followed by others.

       4. And thus, because God loved his humans for the highest goodness
       not only when in the first humans he created them in his divine
       image, truly also seen in Adam's fall, but also sinners are
       accompanied by his love, so that for the cause of procuring their
       salvation he gave them the Son the redeemer for all; also it is
       recognized, that, when God from all eternity foresees, humans by
       sin to be gone to corruption, however for the cause of procuring
       their salvation he decided to give the Son, who for all paid the
       price of redemption.

       5. Then, just as God declared in time, by act they had followed
       salvation through the merit of Christ, those who had believed in
       Christ; so that however all who were able to believe in Christ, God
       himself thus proclaimed the doctrine of faith, so that it was
       possible to extend to the ears and minds of all, thus it is
       recognized, that God wished from eternity, that all humans believe,
       and to have decided for, the mediator whom he decided to sin, and
       by the published doctrine about him, to offer his embrace to all.

       6. And in what manner God joined in time the divine strength by his
       word, through which the supernatural assent of faith, by the word
       supplied by himself, and thus faith in Christ is able to be excited,
       and is excited, how often a human without a wicked resistance
       admits that word; thus it is certain, that God from eternity
       decided, with proclaiming the word in time strongly and graciously
       to go along thus with the producing effect of faith, so that no one
       might be without faith, unless those in the middle of faith or
       grace being conferred  had despised the same.

       7. Further just as God in time justifies all, who believe in Christ
       and, unless the same by sins against the conscience drive out faith
       and the Holy Spirit, more and more he renews, or he sanctifies, and
       he preserves that same faith and he confirms it continuously to the
       end of life; thus it is known, that God from eternity decided, for
       all who will believe in Christ, in time to confer the grace of
       justification and renewal,  by the means rightly to sanctify the
       users further, and to preserve their faith and to confirm it
       continuously to the end of their life.

       8. Finally, just as God in time finally saves by act all who
       believe in Christ, also the eternal decree of God is recognized
       about all being certainly saved who finally believe in time.

       9. And because God from eternity foresaw which humans might finally
       believe, and so that he decides to save these, that the eternal
       decree about the eternal salvation being shared to the finally
       believing, in view of the merits of Christ and the foreseen faith
       in Christ, done and precisely seen it is called especially by the
       name of predestination or election.

       10. However from the opposite, just as God in time punishes by
       eternal damnation humans who either never believed, or on the
       contrary they drove out faith and ended life without faith, thus it
       is admitted, that God determined from eternity, those, who died
       without final faith, to damn eternally.

       11. And just as God foresaw from eternity, which humans in time
       depart without faith in Christ, thus in the same way, so that such
       is distinctly recognized, he determined to damn them eternally. And
       this decree is called reprobation.

       12. To election strictly speaking pertains the virtually causing
       cause I. the efficient cause, which is the Triune God.

       13. The impulsive internal cause is the goodness or mercy and free
       favor of God.

       14. The external impulsive cause, and it the principal, is the
       merit of Christ.

       15. The lesser principal external impulsive cause of the decree of
       election is faith in Christ, and it final faith.

       16. The object of predestination is human sinners, but finally
       believing, and them all and singly.

       17. The nearer end of election is the same salvation, applied to the
       elect in time; however the ultimate end is the glory of the divine

       18. The decree of election, according to what is to this point, is
       determined to be (1) particular and (2) immutable.

       19. It is possible to define election or predestination broadly
       speaking, that it is an eternal decree of God, by which God from his
       immense mercy to all humans, whom He foresaw falling into sin, to
       send a mediator and to offer through a universally embracing
       proclamation, also to all, who will not be fighting, to justify all
       believing and by the means of grace further to renew those using
       the means and to protect faith continuously to the end of life in
       them, and then those finally believing he arranges to save for the
       glory of his goodness.

       20. Strictly speaking predestination or election is able to be
       defined, that it is an eternal decree of God, that God from his
       immense mercy foresaw those humans all and singly, who will be
       finally believing in Christ, according to that same merit of Christ,
       by final faith being apprehended and thus foreseen, he arranges to
       give eternal salvation, being the cause of that same salvation of
       them and the cause of his glory.

       21. Reprobation similarly is a decree of God, and to such an extent
       it recognizes the efficient cause to be the triune God.

       22. The internal impulsive cause is the punishing justice of God.

       23. The external impulsive cause are human sins, also in so far as
       they are joined with final unbelief.

       24. The object of reprobation are impious humans finally

       25. The end of reprobation is the punishing of sinners and the
       glory of the divine punishing justice.

       26. Reprobation also is a decree not only particular, but also

       27. It is possible to define reprobation, that it is an eternal
       decree of God, which God out of his avenging justice decides to
       damn finally unbelieving human sinners according to their own sins
       when joined to final unbelief for the punishing of their sins and
       the glory of his divine justice.
 Chapter Thirteen

      On the church.

      1. Those humans, whom God, according to his eternal decree, gave
      faith and his grace, collectively together are called the church.
      And indeed, seen by reason of the present life, they are called the
      militant church, however by reason of the other or future life the
      triumphant church; granted even that the name of church embraces
      both assemblies, the other, absolutely speaking, precisely indicates
      the militant church.

      2. This same church militant also is accepted in two parts: in one
      way properly and precisely for the congregation of the truly
      believing and of the saints, who are implanted into Christ the head
      through faith, just as the living members are made one with the same
      mystical body; in another way improperly and by synecdoche, for the
      whole gathered assembly out of which those truly believing come,
      saints mixed with hypocrites and evil ones.

      3. The head of the church, properly understood, is the God-man
      Christ, not only by reason of the dignity and perfection on account
      of the members of the body, truly also especially as far as the
      virtues and power, not only moral, but truly also physical.

      4. And as in the human body there are various connections, through
      which the living soul from the head into the members are diverted;
      thus the manifold power of Christ the head extends itself into the
      church partly through various functions from the things established
      by that one in the church, partly through gifts given to the church,
      both ministry and sanctification.

      5. But beyond Christ another certain head of the church, who visibly
      governs the universal church in place of Christ, is recognized
      neither from necessity, nor from the free will and institution of

      6. The efficient cause of the church is the triune God and Christ,
      the God-man.

      7. The internal impulsive cause is the goodness or free favor of
      Christ; the external or meritorious cause is Christ the mediator.

      8. Humans truly believing and holy constitute the matter of the

      9. The form of the church consists in a true union of the believing
      and holy with Christ through a true and living faith.

      10. The end of the church, and it the nearer end, is the building up
      of both the whole body, and the individual members; the ultimate end,
      the eternal salvation of them.

      11. The attributes of the church are commonly constituted as four:
      namely that it is 1. one, 2. holy, 3. catholic,, and  4. apostolic.

      12. However the church is one partly absolutely and in itself,
      through the internal unity of faith in Christ, which is joined with
      love of God, but also love of our neighbor by an individual joining;
      partly exclusively and in opposition to many assemblies of the same
      species or plan, either coexisting  or  alternately succeeding to

      13. The external unity, as far as its profession of the doctrine of
      faith and participation of the same sacraments, and also the
      conversation and communion of life though the mutual office of
      brotherly love does not equally pertain to the attributes of the
      church; for it is not perpetual. However the unity by reason of the
      one visible head, the vicar of Christ, has absolutely no place.

      14. The church is properly called holy, first indeed, because its
      head is holy; then, because the members also are all holy both by
      imputed righteousness, and by inherent righteousness, however which
      last sanctity is imperfect.

      15. The church is and is said [to be] catholic, not in so far as it
      is orthodox, but as far as [it is] universal 1. of places, peoples
      and races, 2. with respect of persons, namely all the faithful, 3.
      by reason of time.

      16. Further the church is said to be apostolic, because it embraces
      the apostolic doctrine by faith and holds it complete.

      17.  The effect of the church properly speaking is the vivification
      of those, who are now in it, and the generation, or regeneration. of
      many others.

      18. It is possible to define the church properly speaking, that it
      is an assembly of the truly believing and saints, gathered by God
      and Christ the God-man from the free favor toward humans on account
      of the merit of Christ, the gathering of those united by the Lord
      and his redeemer Christ through true faith,  in which Christ through
      word and sacraments repeatedly regenerates some and implanted those
      through faith in him one with others and now before rebirth he
      vivifies and sanctifies for the building and salvation of the whole
      body and individual members.

      19. The church of Christ spread throughout the world holds many
      partial assemblies, who advertise for themselves the same name and
      definition of church. And the distinction of the church is noted as
      universal and particular. Also particular churches are able to be
      subdistinguished as simple, which do not stand with other churches,
      and composite, which stand with other churches.

      20. Meanwhile that more distinguished praise and the promises of
      perpetual duration, which are assigned in Scripture to the church,
      are not assigned to some certain particular church, but they ought
      to be referred to the church of Christ seen absolutely.

      21. The truly believing and saints, who constitute the church
      properly speaking, have everywhere in the world to themselves the
      joined non-holy, or sinners, hidden and manifest, not only as far as
      cohabitation and purely civil society, truly also thus, that they
      have some ecclesiastical society and external communion with the
      truly believing; and that when this happens, it is customary for the
      name of church to be attributed to these indiscriminate churches in
      a way through synecdoche.

      22. However it truly happens, that, when saints and non-saints are
      gathered, sometimes those, otherwise these stand out, and the holy
      indeed are estimated to stand out by reason of doctrine, when it,
      harmful errors being excluded, is publicly and purely preached; then
      as far as the integrity of morals, when good examples of Christian
      virtues thrive, vices being suppressed; however the non-holy
      outweigh by reason of morals indeed, when defaults proceed or reign
      with impunity, however by reason of doctrine, when false dogma
      publicly is scattered and the true doctrine and its confessors are
      suppressed: thus then at last the church with the joined non-holy is
      said to be the church of Christ simply and absolutely, when the holy
      by reason of doctrine and morals are outstanding; when however the
      non-holy, especially by reason of doctrine and  public profession,
      are outstanding in the church, then that indistinct assembly,
      gathered from saints and non-saints, is not called the church
      absolutely, but a church according to that, or with adding a corrupt

      23. And this distinction pertains between a true or pure church, in
      which truly believing and saints constitute a greater part, and
      false or impure, in which the non-holy erring in the doctrine of
      faith constitute the greater part.

      24. The true or pure church is able to be described, that it is a
      gathering of humans, in which all, having those things necessary for
      salvation by believing and for sanctity of life by doing, without
      harmful errors being mixed in, are taught from the word of God and
      are administered the sacraments according to the institution of
      Christ, and thus spiritual people are brought forth by the son of
      God, spiritual people who through true faith are joined to Christ
      the head and are made one body in him.

      25. And thus it is customary to be done, that to churches so called
      through synecdoche  also in this way are applied the attributes of
      the church properly speaking, that it is called one, holy, catholic
      and apostolic.

      26. Although truly many assemblies of the called, seen singly, are
      rightly called churches of Christ, however not therefore do all of
      those chosen constitute one catholic or universal church, which
      according to the content in them, the whole multitude of those truly
      believing and saints rightly called are called the catholic or
      universal church of Christ.

      27. Truly also in a corrupt church those spiritual people are
      possible to be born, and spiritual sons are born by God through the
      word of God, which is preached there also, and they are complete in
      substance through baptism.

      28. Otherwise the church properly speaking indeed is not distinctly
      visible, but only confusedly. This particular church, which is said
      synechdochly,  is thus visible, so that just as a true church, as
      far as its members are concerned, may be distinctly recognized and
      are able to be discerned from false or corrupt churches.

      29.However it is possible to be done, and it is divinely proclaimed
      to be, so that the church for some time has none of its parts
      visible, or that the visible church straightforwardly fails.

      30. Meanwhile to the particular true, or pure, church, that such,
      from humans experienced in Scripture or known by Christians, two
      marks are sufficient: namely the preaching of the pure word and the
      lawful administration of the sacraments.

      31. The ecclesiastical ministry in its own way represents the church,
      and also councils or sacred gatherings of humans learned in holy
      doctrine, by the public authority of those called together and by a
      conveniently orderly beginning in considering and thoroughly judging
      controversies of faith and Christian doctrine according to Scripture,
      and what pertains to the external order and good order of the church,
      being instituted and outstanding of those occupied with the building
      of the church and the glory of God.

      32. Councils are divided into ecumenical or universal, which
      contained some bishops and learned men either out of the whole Roman
      world, or almost the whole church, or at least by that whole church
      their decrees were approved and received, and particular councils,
      which from at least one of the two parts of the church were called
      together.  Some councils, deriving their name from the learned men
      of one nation called together are called national councils. Others
      consisting of men from one diocese are called diocesan councils.

      33. Councils, which have an undoubted authority, do not have  such
      authority from this, that the church, whish is the pillar of truth,
      is represented, but truly it is an authority dependent on the Sacred
      Scriptures and from the agreement of the synod's decisions with them,
      although a certain authority comes to their decrees from the latter
      agreement from the consensus of the churches through the whole world.

      34. To the unity of the church is opposed  1. schisms, or divisions
      of the church in parts, the mutual love and peace being taken away,
      as far as the actual ecclesiastical or fraternal communication is
      concerned , or as far as the faith of individuals is concerned.

      35. However, schisms arise partly out of dissension about doctrines
      in the foundation of faith, especially if they come to corruptions
      of doctrine by rage and by deceits, partly from dissension on less
      necessary parts of doctrine, or ceremonies, or things which pertain
      to ecclesiastical discipline, if someone  obtrudes into someone
      else's under the opinion of necessity, from which those, holding to
      their liberty, prefer to, and do, abstain.

      36. But those who are separated form some church by an unjust
      excommunication and who cease to commune, it is not possible to
      impute the guilt of schismatics to them, and the hatred of those,
      which the authors of the schism accomplished, it is not opposed to

      37. 2.  Syncretism is opposed to the unity of the church, or it is a
      union in fraternal and ecclesiastical harmony of dissenting parties
      in religion, not obstinately disagreeing, so that either errors of
      doctrine on the part of the dissenting are tolerated, or at least
      those same erring persons are tolerated within the ecclesiastical
      society, as brothers in Christ and co-heirs of eternal life; which,
      however, is a harmful  tolerance of both.

      38. Finally 3. and especially the Antichrist  opposes the Christian
      Church, whether it may be a series or complex of many humans in the
      same impiety of succession to themselves, or indeed to give as
      private property a kingdom in the church, or an arrogating to
      themselves of divine power in everything, especially it is true of
      those having a seat in the city of Rome, of those also bringing in
      various corruptions of doctrine and public sanctity and doing so by
      fraud and much violence, by the oppressing of confessors of the true
      faith, of those fighting against, thus however, so that that impiety
      at length is publicly manifested and while that impiety and
      Antichrist are increased, Christ comes to judgment, and they are
 Chapter Fourteen

      On the ecclesiastical ministry.

      1. For the gathering and preservation of the church it is necessary
      that certain humans perform the office of preaching the word and
      administering the sacraments, so that through these means faith is
      conferred on humans and being received it is confirmed and increased.
      And this is that office, which is called the ecclesiastical ministry.

      2. The efficient principal cause of the ecclesiastical ministry when
      seen in itself,  then by reason of the ministers, who by that cause
      are affected, is the triune God, and Christ the God-man.

      3. However God calls humans to the ecclesiastical office sometimes
      immediately or with no interceding arbitrary works of other humans,
      sometimes mediately, truly through the church, which in the name of
      God commits that office to certain persons. Since it is done in this
      way, the church is able to be called the lesser principal cause of
      the calling of ministers.

      4. And this right or power of constituting ministers applies also to
      particular churches separated from the community of other churches
      through an unjust excommunication.

      5.To the calling of ministers, which is done mediately by the
      congregation, three things are present: The election or judgment
      about the dignity of the person brought to the sacred ministry, by
      reason of learning and gifts for the acts of the office rightly
      meeting the requirements, and the designation of that person to the
      ministerium.  2. Ordination or the solemn inauguration through
      certain rites of an elected person to the sacred office.  3. The
      Call in it's special use, or a concession and entrusting of the
      function of the power to teach the Word of God in public gatherings
      and administering the sacraments.

      6. And to this in diverse ways applies the ecclesiastical and
      secular order.  The former is, to explore erudition and the other
      necessary gifts of the one who is chosen and then to bring judgment
      to those things; then to ordain the chosen or elect person by solemn
      rite; both of those are done in the name of the church. The secular
      order almost agrees in the judgment of ecclesiastical order about
      the aptitude of the person, since the assembly has heard about the
      external gifts and sincerity of doctrine, and also about the
      person's way of life, it pays attention whether by merit the person
      will justly admonish. Likewise joined with the ecclesiastical order
      it designates or selects a person for the ministry, and thus with
      unanimous consent it confers the power of teaching the word and
      administering the sacraments to the elected person.

      7. However, the ecclesiastical ministry introduces the power and the
      office 1. of publicly teaching and regularly administering the
      sacraments, 2. the power and duty of forgiving and retaining sins.

      8. It pertains to the office of teaching, that the revealed
      doctrines of the divine faith be clearly put forward and be solidly
      confirmed for the comprehension of the hearers, also the errors of
      the opposition, which are to be feared, lest they are insinuated
      into the mind from other directions, are to be distinctly
      demonstrated and as fighting with the word of God and arguing
      against harmful things, similarly, those things which are to be
      done, according to the law and offices of the Christians in whatever
      state they are to be clearly taught and set forth to them, being led
      to firm arguments and for the persuading by the appropriate things
      humans are excited and moved; however sins and vices being fled from,
      as far as the guilt and determined punishment are concerned, these
      things are to be pointed out and from them the minds of humans are
      restrained and changed; finally the consolation of minds from
      afflictions and anxiety, by agreement of the same and by an offering
      of divine things they are encouraged and strengthened.

      9. In the administration of the sacraments the ministers ought to be
      attentive, not only that they observe accurately the uniformity of
      the institution of these sacraments, but truly also, that they
      confer these means of grace at the right time on those who have the
      need nor are unworthy, but they do not equally admit the unworthy.

      10. As far as the office of forgiving and retaining sins, it is
      observed, that the forgiveness of sins is announced not only
      universally and indeterminately to all those who are penitent and
      believing in Christ, but truly also determinately and to the
      individual who has proclaimed the probably signs of penitence and
      faith by confession and they ask to be absolved from their sins. Nor
      is that a bare declaration, but it is efficacious for the
      confirmation of the remission of sins worked by God.

      11. Similarly as far as the retention of sins is concerned the
      ministry of the church is, that not only he declare the wrath of God
      and punishment universally to unbelieving humans and to all the
      impenitent, and truly also in the particular and singular he denies
      the forgiveness of sins for enormous and notorious sinners and he
      prevents him from the concord of the church or from the use of the
      holy supper, or he ejects him straighforward from the society of the
      church and hands him over to Satan. This action is not a bare
      declaration, but it is an effective sentence.

      12. And then the ministers of the church also are concerned about
      external things of the church or rites and ceremonies, in themselves
      indeed indifferent, but intended for the building of the church,
      done by the public authority of the church, not however for the
      reason of reverence or merit toward God; but being instituted for
      the external education, they are celebrated,  and not changed or
      eliminated unless it is done prudently and from the use of the

      13. A correlate of the ministers of the church, and also the end of
      which of the minister, is the assembly of those who hear them
      teaching and the sharersof that teaching are restored by their
      ministry and by the administration of the sacraments.

      14. The nearer end of which of the ecclesiastical ministry is the
      reconciliation of humans with God through faith in Christ and the
      increase in faith and other Christian virtues; the ultimate end is
      the eternal salvation of the same.

      15. The ecclesiastical ministry is defined as a public office,
      ordained by God, in which certain persons, legitimately called and
      ordained, teach the word of god, administer the sacraments, forgive
      and retain sins and they care for and direct other things, which
      pertain to the church, for the conversion, sanctification and
      eternal salvation of humans.

   Chapter Fifteen
      On the political magistrates.

      1. Another state, which has a place in the church, is the state of
      those, who, being powerful in civil power, preside over others and
      to such an extent that they have been entrusted with the care of the
      public welfare, and they are commonly called magistrates.

      2. The efficient cause of the office of magistrate both in itself,
      and as far as they are borne and administered by a certain person,
      is the Triune God and Christ according to his human nature.

      3. The office of magistrate is entrusted to certain persons by God
      either immediately and with no arbitrary works of humans interceding,
      or mediately or by interceding plans of humans and their voluntary
      works, either through election, or through succession, or through
      legitimate occupation.

      4. The power and office of magistrates it directed towards
      everything that the health of the republic depends on, to things
      both civil and sacred, however those are dealt with in different

      5. Civil things in themselves are subordinate to the power of the
      magistrate, so that he is able to admonish and to arrange all things
      for his judgement, and he does these things in accordance with
      natural and divine law.

      6. However, that which pertains to sacred things, indeed the dogmas
      of faith in themselves are not under the power of the magistrate,
      also from those divinely written actions, which are common to all
      Christians, the magistrates themselves are to observe and cultivate,
      those which are truly appropriate to the ministry to the church, he
      not to claim those to himself but leave them to the church. However
      just as they are accustomed to reckon with the sacred things all the
      rest, which are appointed to the worship of God and they will do
      them either for the conservation of true religion or for the renewal
      of true religion when it is collapsed. Thus it is known, that those
      things in their way are named as under the power of the magistrate.

      7. The duty itself of the magistrate is customarily discussed in
      terms of legislating, judging and punishing.

      8. Especially, as far as the care of sacred things is concerned, it
      pertains to the magistrate, to establish suitable servants of the
      church, to erect and preserve schools and churches, to provide for
      ministers an honest support; to institute visitations and councils,
      to write and guard ecclesiastical laws; to dispense ecclesiastical
      property; to preserve ecclesiastical discipline; to inquire into
      heretics, and likewise into inferior servants of the churches and
      schools and other individuals of whatever similar kinds there may be
      and, to compel them to stand for judgement; to punish those
      convicted of heresy or crimes; to abrogate heretics and idolatrous
      cults which are manifest and condemned by the church, and, so that
      the church is purged from them, to care  etc.

      9. However the magistrate, in those sacred things which are under
      civil power, ought to make use of the council of the honorable
      doctors and pastors of the church.

      10. Because the Christian magistrate, besides the legislative and
      judicial power, also has an avenging power, or by punishing the
      contentious, it is certain that this power extends also to the
      capital punishment of criminals.

      11. Also a magistrate is able to wage war  against the unjust power
      of the enemy which tries to subdue the innocent and the whole
      republic, repelling the enemy and guarding both religion and liberty
      and possessions.

      12. However the magistrate is to be carefully warned, 1. that he
      should not approach war, as long as more mild means are possible,
      nor 2.  to war to fill up his desires, but only for the cause of the
      public welfare and tranquility, and finally 3. not to wage war
      unless by means of legitimate modes and means.

      13. A correlate to the supreme magistrate are his subjects and by
      this name all are understood that is contained in the republic, not
      however that they are the same as the magistrate, nor is the
      difference between lay and clergy abolished.

      14. And indeed subjects are obligated to apply to the magistrates
      honor, obedience, tribute, and requests for the welfare of those
      same magistrates.

      15. The nearer end of the civil magistrate is the public welfare,
      the ultimate is the glory of God.

      16. It is possible to define a magistrate as abstractly conceived,
      that it is a public office, ordained by God, in which certain persons
      legitimately called and equipped with power about things civil and
      likewise sacred in the republic, bring forth laws, exercise justice
      and punish transgressors, defend the republic against external
      enemies, for the cause of the public welfare.

      17. It is possible to define a magistrate concretely, that it is a
      person or a group of persons divinely called and equipped with power
      about civil and sacred things to make laws, to exercise judgment and
      to punish the contentious, and then to defend civil society, for the
      cause of the public welfare.

 Chapter Sixteen

      About the domestic state and society, and especially the state
      of marriage, parents, and masters.

      1. The third state, which occurs within the church, and which is a
      nursery of ecclesiastical and political order, is the domestic
      state, which includes the relationships of marriage, parents, and

      2. The efficient cause of the marriage relationship is God, either
      marriage seen of what sort it is in itself and its nature, or seen
      from the parts joined together.

      3. However the causes of marriage are also, by an act of being drawn
      together, the spouses themselves and their parents in whose power
      they are.

      4. The impulsive internal cause on the part of the spouses is that
      natural inclination to the procreating  of offspring and to a mutual
      partnership of life.

      5. The impulsive external cause is strong desire of humans of either
      of the two sexes and the necessity for a mutual helper both for the
      procreation of offspring, and for being able to live life well.

      6. The causality of the efficient cause of marriage, on the part of
      the married partners is the consent, which is manifested through the
      external act of the mutual and free promise about the cohabitation
      of the married people.

      7. In its own way, the priestly blessing or the joining instituted
      by the Christian church also  pertains to the efficient cause of

      8. The material of marriage are the same persons who are coupled by
      a joining, one male and one female, fit for paying the marriage debt,
      and of whose joining consanguinity or affinity do not hinder.

      9. Consanguinity is described, that it is a touching of persons, of
      which one is descended from the other, or which (two or more) are
      descended from one certain mother through a carnal generation.

      10. Affinity is the nearness of people, proceeding from marriage,
      thus that those who are related to a spouse, one of the two made one
      flesh, by intervening consanguinity among themselves, by this also
      those related to the other spouse are neighbors by flesh, because
      the spouses are made one flesh among themselves.

      11. For evaluating persons, for whom a legitimate marriage is sought,
      among them the nearness of  lines and grades of consanguinity and
      affinity are observed.

      12. A line is the collection of persons descending from the same
      place branch, containing grades.

      13. A line is divided into direct  lines, which are among persons of
      whom one from others descends and is called both ascending and
      descending, and collateral lines, which is among persons, of whom
      neither descends from another, but both descend from a certain third

      14. Collateral lines are divided into equal lines, which are between
      persons equally distant from a common branch, and unequal lines when
      one is nearer to the related person, the other more remote from the
      common branch.

      15. A grade is a condition of distant persons, by which is known how
      far distant by male descent or blood relationship the two persons
      differ between themselves.

      16. The method of computing grades of propinquity or of the distance
      of persons in this doctrine, for the diversity of lines, are
      comprehended in three different rules.

      17. The first rule, which pertains to direct lineage, is this: When
      inquiring about  who is related to whom, you compute how many
      persons are between the two people, and then take one way, and that
      is the number of grades between the two people.

      18. The second rule, which looks at equal collateral lines, is this:
      When inquiring about who is related to whom, the number of grades
      the persons are distant from the common branch, that is how many
      grades they are distant from each other.

      19. The third rule, which pertains to unequal collateral lines, is
      this: When inquiring about who is related to whom, by as many grades
      as the persons are distant from the common branch, by so many grades
      those persons are distant from each other.

      20. And thus for the prohibition of marriage between those
      consanguineously related, it is known that in direct line marriage
      is prohibited simply and to an infinite number of grades, and this
      is forbidden by divine law and natural or moral law.

      21. In the equal collateral line marriages in the first grade are
      prohibited by divine and natural law, and by positive ecclesiastical
      law they are also prohibited in the second grade.

      22. In the unequal collateral line marriages are prohibited in the
      second grade by divine and natural law. But they are prohibited by
      ecclesiastical law also in the third grade; on the contrary also in
      the fourth grade, if one person is separated from the other by so
      much as a grade from the common branch.

      23. Affinity is usually established by three genera: affinity is of
      the first genus, by which through the mediating of one married
      person two people are drawn together; the second genus, which
      through the mediating of two people, through as many marriages; the
      third, which through the mediating of three persons through as many
      marriages, brings two people together. But the second and third
      genera of affinity today do not impede a marriage, however in the
      first genus some marriages are prohibited.

      24. Lines and grades of affinity are evaluated and computed in
      proportion to the plan of the lines and the grades of consanguinity;
      thus that, by the grades and lines of consanguinity a person has,
      through which by an interceding marriage an affinity is contracted,
      his consanguinity is joined to, and his grade and line of
      consanguinity is evaluated and related by the marriage of the other
      person, to whom that marriage is made.

      25. And thus, by the grades and lines of consanguinity by which it
      is not permitted to enter a marriage, by the same lines and grades
      of affinity it is prohibited to contract a marriage with a relative
      by marriage.

      26. Especially in a direct line of affinity marriages are prohibited
      by divine and natural law simply and to an infinite number of grades.

      27. In a collateral line relations by marriage in the first grade are
      prohibited from marriage by divine and natural law.

      28. In an unequal collateral line a joining of marriage-relatives in
      the second grade is prohibited by divine and natural law.

      29. Among those marriages begun in prohibited grades this difference
      is to be seen, that some are completely dissolved, and others with
      an inflicted arbitrary penalty are able to be tolerated.

      30. In those grades or marriage which are prohibited only by a
      positive ecclesiastical law, in those degrees the church properly
      speaking is able to grant a dispensation.

      31. The form or the formal reason of marriage consists in the mutual
      obligation of the spouses to faith and conjugal duties. Commonly
      this is called the conjugal bond.

      32. The conjugal bond is indissoluble, partly by the force of the
      charges, partly, and especially, by the force of the divine

      33. Meanwhile it is possible to effect a divorce, or a legitimate
      and valid dissolution of the marriage as far as the conjugal bond is
      concerned, by two causes: certainly in the case of adultery, it is
      possible by that same law to loosed the bond and for the matrimony
      to be dissolved, and it is permitted for the innocent one to enter
      marriage again; and by the case of malicious desertion, where the
      deserter himself in fact and heedlessly breaks the conjugal bond,
      and the deserted, being declared free by a competent judge, is
      permitted to enter a new marriage.

      34. When persons illegitimately joined are separated, it is not a
      divorce, but rather a declaration that in that joining there was no
      conjugal bond.

      35. Similarly when spouses are separated only as far as bed and
      board are concerned, it is not properly divorce, but rather a
      suspension of the act of cohabitation and the conjugal duties.

      36. When one of the spouses dies, the conjugal bond is broken and the
      surviving spouse is permitted to enter marriage a second time with
      another person.

      37. The end to which of marriage are humans of both sexes, whom
      nature made suitable for marriage, apart from an ecclesiastical and
      secular state.

      38. The nearer end of which, to which marriage in itself is ordained,
      is the procreation of offspring and mutual help in life; the remoter
      end is the preservation of the church and republic.

      39. The intermediate accessory end is that marriage might be a
      remedy against depraved desires.

      40. Some marriage offices are common to both, while others are proper
      to the husband or the wife.

      41. To the common duties pertains the joining of minds, bodies, and

      42. The duties of the husband are, to protect the wife, to guide her
      by plans and warnings, to provide the  necessities of their life,
      and to refresh her by caressing conversation.

      43. For the wives the duties are, to honor the husband and to obey
      him, and to have care for family matters.

      44. It is possible to define marriage, that it is an association or
      conjunction of one male and one female, indissoluble, according to
      the divine institution, born from the mutual consent of both, for
      the generation of offspring and the mutual help of life.

      45. The paternal association has an efficient cause from God, either
      that in himself, or it is seen on the part of parents and children.

      46. Also the parents pertain to the efficient cause of the paternal
      association, in so far as they bear children from themselves.

      47. The impulsive cause on the part of the parents is the natural
      desire of generation children and likewise having children for

      48. The causality of the efficient cause on the part of parents is

      49. The material  of the paternal  relationship are parents and
      children, although also the father alone, or the mother alone, with
      son or daughter is enough.

      50. The form consists in that mutual relation, through which parents
      in respect to the children, and the children in respect to the
      parents consider each other, and joined in this relationship, they
      are obligated to mutual duties.

      51. That relation and the bond of the relationship remains, as long
      as parents and children live.

      52. The intermediate end is the education of the offspring and the
      health of the family; the ultimate, that the church and the republic
      might be preserved.

      53.The duty of parents consists in the suppling to children of food
      and clothes, and likewise the care of the children, that they are
      instructed in all piety, sciences and arts, to such an extant that
      the child improves their temporal and eternal welfare.

      54. The duty of children consists in love, honor and submission
      being exhibited to parents, and likewise, if the necessity happens,
      by the support of them; also bearing their zeal with a calm spirit.

      55. It is possible to describe the paternal relation, that it is a
      relation or conjunction of parents and children, divinely instituted
      for the education of children and the welfare of the whole society.

      56. The proprietary relation likewise has an efficient cause from
      God, or that seen in itself, or by reason of those who are entrusted
      with it and possess things.

      57. The masters themselves and sometimes also the servants also
      pertain to the efficient cause of this relationship.

      58. The impulsive cause on the part of humans is the desires of this
      life, which have a place not only on the part of the servants, but
      truly also on the part of the masters.

      59. The causality of the efficient cause on the part of humans
      consists in this, that servants or captives of a just war are led,
      or bought, or are freely contracted with the master.

      60. The material of this relation are the masters and servants, and
      likewise the mistresses and maids.

      61. The formal reason of this relation consists in the mutual
      relation and obligation of master and servant.

      62. The nearer end is the mutual utility of ordering and being
      subject in this society; the more remote is the convenience of
      public society.

      63. The duty of masters consists in the equal imposition of labor,
      in the supplying of the necessities of this life, or by the payment
      of promised wages; finally by direction of the workers, and
      prudently and moderately disciplining them.

      64. The duty of servants consists in the honor, submission, faith
      and patience exhibited to the master.

      65. It is possible to describe the proprietary relationship, that it
      is a society or conjunction between master and servant, likewise
      between mistresses and maids, ordained according to the divine will
      for mutual utility.

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